Background and Objective:Skills are the driver of economic growth, and in societies with low skills, the introduction and application of technology, high productivity, and new ways of working are difficult, and in fact delay the improvement in quality of living standards. Therefore, technical and vocational education as an important tool for training and increasing the efficiency and productivity of human resources can be the main priority of the education system of different nations and is considered increasingly prominent and important in education programs. There is also evidence that technical and vocational education plays an influential role in the development of secondary education. Nevertheless, technical and vocational education still suffers from a secondary education label and therefore fails to attract talented students who choose public education instead. As a result, the lack of skills of young job seekers has become a crisis in these countries. The vocationalization of secondary education has become a problematic issue in Iran like other societies for achieving the main goal in terms of adapting the education system to the labor market changes. The present study intends to provide a framework for training vocational and technical skill to second-level secondary students in academic branch.
Methods:Regarding this, the qualitative research approach using documentary method was applied to examine the educational and strategic national documents, existing literature associated with vocational and technical education, and practical and theoretical frameworks. Then, the main framework including 11 components such as the logic and reason of program, the dominant principals of program, educational approach program, goals, content scope and orientation, educational methods, students grouping, learning resources and materials, the evaluation of academic achievement, the prerequisite resources and facilities, and program requirements has been explored. In the next step, validating the extracted framework was examined by different stakeholders, in the focus group meetings, has been confirmed.
Findings: In sum, this framework will be suggested as a foundation for planning and conducting the training a vocational and technical skill to Iranian second-level secondary students in academic branch.
Conclusion: In general, this study, by drawing the main agenda of the curriculum, has provided a framework for teaching technical and professional skills to theoretical students in the second year of high school, in which several components based on the documents and perceptions of different stakeholders are proposed. From structural factors to process factors are discussed in sufficient detail. This framework can be the basis for decision makers and policy makers to formulate policies and curricula for teaching a skill to high school students in the theoretical branch. Improving the level of career guidance and counseling services for students is another achievement of this framework that can be used in practice.
This means that since one of the important goals is to expand vocational training and workplace experiences, it is important to provide career counseling and counseling services to students in a practical way through the development of a variety of vocational training programs. Such services should be provided at least at the end of the lower secondary school year or at the beginning of the upper secondary school to facilitate students' informed decision-making to move from lower to upper secondary school.
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