Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Islamic Sience, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of Educational Technology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of software engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Hamedan, Iran


Interaction element is one of the elements influencing the learning in e-learning environments. This study aimed to compare the effects of computer-based and web-enhanced learning environments on six elements of interaction (student-student, student-teacher, student-content, teacher-teacher, teacher-content and content-content) in the process of Occupational Health course.The study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with a control group. The population of the study included all students of Public Health at Asadabad Faculty of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2015-2016. Of these, 60 students were selected through a random sampling procedure and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (30 per group). The first group (control) was taught in a computer-                based and the second one (experimental) was taught in a web-enhanced learning environment. The materials and instruments included instructional multimedia and the questionnaire of assessing six levels of interaction with 60 questions in likert scale. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the gathered data. The results showed that there were significant differences between computer-based and web-enhanced learning environments on six elements of interaction (p<0.05). In other words, web-enhanced learning environment is more effective on the six interaction elements in comparison to computer-based learning environment.   


Main Subjects

[1] Sh’abani, H, Educational and Developmental skills: Methods and techniques of teaching, Tehran, Samt, (2012). [In Persian]
[2] Saif, A A, Modern educational psychology: psychology of learning and teaching, Tehran, Doran, (2013). [In Persian]
[3] Morrow, Revonda G. Interactivity in an online learning environment: A case study of participant experience in professional development, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Griffith University, Brisbane (2007).
[4] Poorjamshidi, M, Determination of factors affecting interaction in Web-based instruction and presenting an appropriate model for improvement. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tehran, Allameh Tabatabaei University, (2014). [In Persian]
[5] Gharabaghi, H, "Investigation of effect interaction within student and teacher on academic achievement", Hamedan: Bu-Ali Sina University. (2006). [In Persian]
[6] Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T, E-learning in the 21 century: A framework for research and practice, Taylor & Francis, (2011).
[7] Khan, Badrul Huda, ed, Managing e-learning: Design, delivery, implementation, and evaluation. IGI Global, (2005).
[8] Anderson, Terry. The theory and practice of online learning, Athabasca University Press, (2008).
[9] Petchtone, Puangtong, and Chaijaroen Sumalee, "The validation of web-based learning environment model to enhance cognitive skills and critical thinking for undergraduate students”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 669-673, (2014).
[10] Kanjug, Issara, and Chaijaroen, Sumalee. "The design of web-based learning environments enhancing mental model construction", Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 46, 3134-3140, (2012).
[11] Ham, V. & Davey R, "Our first time: two higher education tutors reflect on becoming a virtual teacher”. Innovations in Education and teaching International, Vol.42. No. 3. 257-62, (2005).
[12] Bodur, E., Özkan, F., Altun, E. & ùimúek, O, "The role of teacher in web enhanced learning activities in primary school information technologies lesson: a case study", Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, ( 2009).
[13] Zarai, Z.E., Ghasemtabar, A, & Momenirad, Theoretical and practical basics of internet use in the teaching and learning process, Tehran, Avaye noor, (2015). [In Persian]
[14] Barak, M, “Closing the gap between attitudes and perceptions about ICT-enhanced learning among pre-service STEM teachers”, Journal of Science Education and Technology , 23 (1), 1-14,(2014).
[15] Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. & Kester, L, “The four-component instructional design model: Multimedia principles in environments for complex learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.)”, The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 71-93, (2005).
[16] Zimmerman, T.D, "Exploring Learner to Content Interaction as a Success Factor in Online Courses", the International Review of Research Open And Distance Learning. Vol 13, No 14, (2012).
[17] Gillingham, P, "Ghosts in the machine: Students participation and grade attainment in a Web-assisted social work course", Social Work Education, 28(4), 423-435, (2009).
[18] Palmer, S. Holt, D. & Bray, S, "Does the discussion help? The impact of a formally assessed online discussion on final student results", British Journal of Education Technology, 39(5), 847-858, (2008).
[19] Dennen, V.P, "From message posting to learning dialogues: Factors affecting learner participation in asynchronous discussion", Distance Education, 26-1, 127-148, ( 2005).
[20] Garrison, D. Randy, and Martha Cleveland-Innes. "Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough", The American Journal of Distance Education, 19.3, 133-148 (2005).
[21] Howard, J. R, "Do College students participate more in discussion in traditional delivery courses or in interactive telecourses? A preliminary comparison", Journal of Higher Education, 73,6, 764-780, 2002.
[22] Jung, I. Choi, S. Lim, C. & Leem, J, "Effects of different types of interaction on learning achievement, satisfaction and participation in web-based instruction", Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 39,2, 153-162,(2002).
[23] McGorry, S.Y, Measuring quality in online programs, Internet and higher education, 6,2, 159-177,(2003).
[24] Song, H, Effects of Gender and Perceived Interaction on Learner Motivation, Sense of Community, Instructor Role, and Learner Role in Internet-based Distance Education. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio University, (2006).
[25] Hannafin, J. M. & Kim, C.M, "Scaffolding problem solving in technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs)", Bridging research and theory with practice”, Computers & Education, 56,2. (2011).
[26] Neo, Mai. "Web-enhanced learning: engaging students in constructivist learning", Campus-Wide Information Systems, 22, 4-14, (2005):.
[27] Levenberg, A. & Barak, M, "Flexible thinking in learning: An individual differences measure for learning in technology-enhanced environments", “Computers & Education”, 99, ( 2016).
[28] Petra, Siti Fatimah, et al. "Supporting students to become autonomous learners: the role of web-based learning", The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 33, 263-275, (2016).
[29] Wdowik, S, "Using a synchronous online learning environment to promote and enhance transactional engagement beyond the classroom", Campus-Wide Information  Systems, 31.4, 264-275, (2014).
[30] Rubrico, J.G.U, "Computer-Aided Learning and Task-Based Learning: Engaging Learners in Contextualizing Grammar", Emerald Group Publishing Limited,(2012).