Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Educational Management, Semnan University. Semnan. Iran

2 Department of Higher Education Management,Esfahan University, Esfahan. Iran

3 , Semnan University. Semnan.Iran


This study was aimed at identifying interaction solutions in improving the teaching – learning process of smart schools in Semnan the method used for this study was exploratory mixed method that first part is qualitative and second part is quantitative. In the qualitative research, in first case 6 persons who are expert in ICT were sampled and they were interviewed in depth method, in second case 24 teachers were chosen in a purposive and snowball methods and they were interviewed in semi-guided method. After content analysis of the obtained results of interviews and deep theoretical study, the researchers developed this results in a form of questionnaire contained 2 sections: 1: demographic information and 2: interaction solutions in improving teaching – learning process of smart schools in the ideal situation and the present situation. Construct and content validity of the questionnaire was determined by experts, and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha, which in the ideal situation reported 0.85 and in the present situation 0.89.In the quantitative part of the research, questionnaires were completed by 254 teachers, 24 managers, 24 deputies and 8 experts in ICT that they were sampled in a stratified method. The results are shown that " connecting schools to National intranet and creating local network to the school "with the most important which are ranked in the first place. «Mobilization computer mini PC, class mate, thin client or lap top connected to the network lan" is in the second place» Computer integrated communication with other schools that is placed in the third." Active member in the Portals smart schools» in the fourth place of the improving effect of the teaching - learning played roles in the smart schools.


Main Subjects

[1] Statistical Center of Iran's Ministry of education, Smart Style of schools ICT, pp.1-15, (2011). [In Persian].
[2] A. A. Dolati, L. jamshidi, and A. A. beydokhti, “Essential Characteristics of Teachers in Improving Teaching- Learning Process at Smart Schools”, Education and Evalution. Vol. 9, No.34, pp. 77-96. (2016). [In Persian]
[3] B. Mohajeran, A. Ghaleei and M. Hamzehrobati, “The Main Reasons for the Lack of Correct Formation of Smart Schools in Mazandaran Province and Presenting Solutions for their Development”, International Journal of Instructional Media, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 13-23, (2014). [In Persian]
[4] A. Sivagami and R. Samundeeswari, “A Study on use of information communication technology in higher  education  in Thanjavur district”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Vo. 6, No. 1, pp. 418-426, (2015).
[5] F. Shahidi, and S. Zareif, “Engage in e-       learning”, University e-learning, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 55-48, (2013). [In Persian]
[6] M. Owen, and R. Liles, “Factors Related to the Use of Internet; Implications for International Agriculture and Extension Education”, Proceedings of the Association For International Agricultural And Extension Education Annual Conference, Arlington, Virginia, (2000).
[7] Y. Madadi, H. Iravanian, and Y. Mohammedi, “The factors affecting the use and knowledge of ICT experts and faculty members in performing organizational tasks”, IT Management, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 144-127, (2014). [In Persian]
[8] Y. Melor, “Malaysian ESL teachers’ use of ICT in their classrooms: expectations and realities”, European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning. Vol. 19, No.1, pp.79-95, (2007).
[9] S. Sirkema, “Implementing Information Technologies in the learning process”. In: 6thWSEAS International Conference on “EACTIVITIES”, Tenerife, Spain, pp. 263-267, (2007).
[10] M. Lubis, M. Yunus, and M. Embi, “ICT and systematic steps in teaching and learning language in the Classroom”, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 1055–1061, (2010).
[11] K. J. Garland, S. J. Anderson, and J. M. Noyes, “Internet as a learning tool: A preliminary study”, Information Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 385-398, (1998).
[12] J. Choi, “A Study on Instruction Strategy to Improve Interactivity in Web-based Instruction”, Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 15, No.3, pp. 129 – 154, (1999).
[13] S. Hwang, and K. Han, “A Design  of Web-based Cooperative Learning System Supporting Effective Interactivity”, The Proceedings of KAIE, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp.74 – 86, (2001).
[14] W. Jun, L. Gruenwald, J. Park, S. Hong, “A Web-Based Motivation-Supporting Model for Effective Teaching-Learning”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.2436, pp. 44-55, (2002).
[15] M. Begay, “The need to develop ICT in schools”, Websites (2012). [In Persian]
[16] A. Yaacob, N.F. Mohammad nor, and H. Azman, “Implementation of the Malaysian Smart School: An Investigation of Teaching- Learning Practices and Teacher-Student Readiness”, Internet Journal of e- Language & Teaching, Vol. 2, pp. 16-25, (2005).
[17] H. Dayyzadh, A. Falah, A. B. Hussein and A. “Hossain Pour, Impact of information technology and communication skills in third grade students”, Youth Sociological Studies Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 80-92, (2013). [In Persian]
[18] A. Chickering and Z. “Gamson Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education”, Winona State University: Seven Principles Resource Center, pp.8-10, (2003).
[19] D.R. Garrison, and T. Anderson, E-learning in the 21 Century, 3nd ed., London: Rutledge, (2005).
[20] M. Danieshvar, and M. Mehrmohammadi, “required training and e-learning instructors”, Academic Journal Electronic learning (Media), Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.19-10, (2013). [In Persian]
[21] I. Zarei Zavaraki, and S. Sidi Nazarloo, “Assess the level of interaction in electronic curriculum Khvajhnsyraldyn University of Technology”, Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 4, No. 11,  pp. 163-147, (2013). [In Persian]
[22] B. Gokkurt, S. Dundar, Y. Soylu, and L. Akgun, “The effects of learning together technique which is based on cooperative learning on student’s achievement in mathematics class” Journal of Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, Vol. 46, pp. 3431-3434, (2012).
[23] M. Karami, “Affecting Cooperative Teaching Method of Grouping and Student Academic Achievement in Secondary School in Mashhad City”, Research on Curriculum Journal. Vol. 2, No. 33, pp. 93-105, (2012).
[24] A. Alexander and M.Van Wyk, “Exploring the value of cooperative learning in enhancing teaching in integrated school environments of the Northern Cape Province”, Journal of Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.47, pp. 1945-1949, (2012).
[25] A. Zahara, and H. “Anower, A comparison of cooperative learning and conventional teaching on student’s achievement in secondary mathematics”, Journal of Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 53-62, (2010).
[26] Z. Wan, Y. Wang and N. Haggerty, “why people benefit from e-learning differently: The effects of psychological processes on e-learning outcomes”, Information & Management, Vol.45, No. 8, pp. 513–521, (2008).
[27] J. Getzels, the Social Psychology of Education. Karimi Y, trans. Tehran: Virayesh Publications, (2007).
[28] C. Geoffrey, E. Constance, and S. Eric, “Smart Schools Commission Report”, New York, pp. 1-56, (2014).
[29] M. A. Lubis, “Educational Technology as a Teaching Aid on Teaching and Learning of Integrated Islamic Education in Brunei Darussalam”, WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 1370-1379, (2009).
[30] M. Mbodila, T. Jones, and M. Munienge, “Integration of ICT in Education: Key Challenges”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 3, No.11, pp.515-520, (2013).
[31] G.M. Piskurich, Getting the most from online learning. London: Pfeiffer, (2004).
[32] J. Moore, C. Dickson-Deane, and K. Galyen, “E-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same”, Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 14, No. 11, pp. 129-135, (2011).
[33] O. Sorebo, H. Halvari, V. Gulli, and R. Kristiansen, “The role of self-determination theory in explaining teacher' motivation to continue to use e-learning technology”, Computer & Education, Vol. 53, No. 9, pp. 1177-1187, (2009).
[34] J. Anderson, “IT, e-learning and teacher development”, International Educational Journal, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 1-14, (2005).
[35] Unesco, Teacher Training on ICT Use in Education in Asia the Pacific, overview From Selected Counties Information programs and Services. Bangkok, pp. 18-28, (2003).
[36] C. Wenli, “Pre- service Teachers ICT Experiences and Competencies: New Generation of Teachers in Digital Age”, proceedings of the 18th international conference society for computers in education, pp.631-638, (2010).
[37] M. Sobhaninejad and A. Mollazahi, “Check the components required for teachers to apply ICT in the school curriculum planning”, Research in curriculum development, Vol. 2, No. 7(34), pp. 59-42, (2012). [In Persian]
[38] M. Rezaei Rad, “Identify the success factors in the implementation of e-learning in higher education”, planning research, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 115-106, (2012). [In Persian]
[39] M. Abdul Wahab, Y. Mehr Alizadeh, and A. pious, “Feasibility deployment of smart schools for girls in high schools in Ahvaz”, Journal of Educational Innovations, Vol. 11, No. 43, pp. 112-81, (2012). [In Persian]
[40] Z.W. Abas, K. Kaur, and H. Harun, E-learning Readiness in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur A: Join Study by the Ministry of Energy, Water And Communications (MEWC), Malaysia And Open University Malaysia (OUM), (2004).
[41] C H. Aydın, and D. Tasci, “Measuring Readiness for e-Learning: Reflections from an Emerging Country”, Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 244-257, (2005).
[42] R. Mutiaradevi, “Measuring E-Learning Readiness in the Forestry Research and Development Agency of Indonesia”, PhD thesis Victoria University, (2009).
[43] M. Afzal Khani, and S. ghods, “Evaluation of the deployment of intelligent secondary schools in the province of administrators and teachers”, Journal of ICT in Education, Vol. 2, No.1, pp.40-2, (2011). [In Persian]
[44] Y. Li, “Development strategy for requirement of ICT in learning of comprehensive regional higher education institutes: Comparing undergraduates belong to different school”, Procedia Environmental Science, Vol. 12, pp. 1005-1009, (2012).
[45] Smart School Road map. Education in Tehran. (2012). [In Persian]
[46] S. Brewer, toward online learning (e) (transition from traditional teaching and communication Strategies), translation Farida business leaders and Abbas, Tehran: Agah Publications, (2001). [In Persian]
[47] M. Heidari, M. vazieri, “the status of Standards and compare schools based on academic performance and critical thinking students with regular schools”, Journal of ICT in Education, Vol.4, No. 2, pp.173-149, (2013). [In Persian].
[48] P. Anddish, and H.R. Sabetghadam, “education and e-learning school”, Roshd Educational Technology, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 6-4, (2014). [In Persian]
[49] S. Hadavand, “Preconditions and challenges of using information technology in corporate­training”, Information technology age, Vol. 67, pp.71-65, (2011). [In Persian]
[50] L. Salehi, and D. Seif. “A prediction model based on the interaction between teachers and students feel lonely and perception of competence among adolescents with and without visual impairment”, Journal of Special Psychology, vol.2, No.5, pp. 64-43, (2012). [In Persian]
[51] A. Clarke, Designing Computer Based Learning Materials, Burlington, Gower, (2001).
[52] M. Lynch, The Online Educator: A Guide to Creating the Virtual Classroom, London: Rutledge, (2002).
[53] Kh. Bagheri, “The following interactive training smart school teaching”, School of Tomorrow, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 9-8, (2013). [In Persian]
[54] J. W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, SAGE Publication, London, (2003).