Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 , Department of Educational Technology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational Technology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Background and Objectives: Blended learning is a pivotal concept within the realm of education, possessing immense significance. The advent of the coronavirus pandemic has underscored the critical importance of this educational approach. Essentially, blended learning has emerged as a potent solution to address challenges and elevate the educational process. This study aims to delve into teachers' perceptions of diverse educational models, with a particular emphasis on blended learning. The participants under scrutiny are teachers who have traversed both electronic and blended learning methods due to the exigencies of the recent COVID-19 crisis. The research seeks to elucidate their preferences, efficacy assessments, interactions, engagement levels in the educational process, as well as their insights into the advantages and distinct characteristics of varying learning environments (including face-to-face, blended, and virtual).
Methods: The research society encompassed all teachers spanning different educational tiers who engaged in e-learning/SHAD  during the throes of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among this pool, a total of 964 teachers voluntarily elected to partake in the study. The data collection phase spanned a three-month duration and was executed via an online questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha method was used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire with a value of more than 0.69. To check the construct validity, the questionnaire was administered to three university experts and three specialists from the Ministry of Education. After considering their feedback and necessary adjustments, the final questionnaire was formulated. The research team meticulously crafted the questionnaire, drawing insights from pertinent literature and analogous survey instruments. Subsequently, the survey instrument was digitized using Google Forms. Employing a meticulously designed 5-point Likert scale, the respondents were tasked with evaluating statements that ranged from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" concerning face-to-face, blended, and virtual learning modalities. Furthermore, the participants were prompted to evaluate their experiences with traditional in-person learning preceding the pandemic and their encounters with online learning during the pandemic. Notably, the teachers were also solicited to express their proclivities for a particular learning approach and to prognosticate the learning model that might optimally serve students in the post-pandemic era. The ensuing data was subjected to rigorous analysis employing the SPSS22 statistical software, with the benchmark for statistical significance set at P < 0.05.
Findings: Teachers, upon contemplation, considered blended learning as a potent educational facilitator, extolling its distinctive attributes. They derived satisfaction from the enriched learning environment it furnished and accentuated its inherently interactive nature. Concurrently, educators also acknowledged the corollary augmentation in workload and financial outlays that come hand in hand with blended instruction. Pertaining to their preferences for learning methodologies, the conventional face-to-face training garnered the highest average rank value, standing at 2.37. This outcome denotes its unequivocal preference. Blended learning occupied the subsequent position with a score of 2.22, trailed by virtual training with a score of 1.41. In the context of assessing the efficacy of blended learning and gauging active participation in the pedagogical process, the t-values conspicuously fell below 1.96. Furthermore, the significance levels corresponding to these variables unequivocally fell below the 0.05 threshold.


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