Document Type : Original Research Paper
1 Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Arak branch, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Education Studies, Educational Research and Planning Organization, Tehran, Iran
Background and Objectives: Today, education in schools requires the use of methods that make learning enjoyable and effective for students. On the other hand, applying the suggestions and paying attention to the results of this research can change the attitude of teachers, planners, and educational policy makers towards using more and more targeted new approaches in education. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of reverse education and teaching strategies. Metacognition was taught to check its effect on students' self-efficacy in science.
Methods: The research method was a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test type with a control group in terms of practical purpose and in terms of data collection method. The statistical population was all the female students of the first year of high school in the 1st district of Karaj in 2021. According to the entry and exit criteria in the study, 45 people were selected based on Cochran's formula and based on the purposeful sampling method and were randomly divided into three groups. The tools used in this research were Scherer's self-efficacy questionnaire (1986). First, the selected students were divided into three equal groups and based on the random method, one group was identified as the first experimental group, the second group as the second experimental group, and the third group as the control group. In the pre-test phase, the dependent variable (self-efficacy in this study) was checked in all three experimental groups, the second experimental group and the control group. The independent variable (reversal training) was implemented in the first experimental group and the training of metacognitive strategies in the second experimental group, and the control group received no training. In the post-test phase, the dependent variable (self-efficacy) was checked in all three groups of the first experiment, the second experiment and the control group, and in the follow-up phase, one month after the post-test phase, the dependent variables (self-efficacy) was checked in both experimental groups. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and inferential statistics were used to test the research hypotheses.
Findings: There is a difference between the effectiveness of reverse education and the teaching of metacognitive strategies in science lessons on students' self-efficacy. The effect of flipped teaching in increasing the self-efficacy of students in science lessons has a good stability over time. The effect of teaching metacognitive strategies in increasing the self-efficacy of students in science lessons has a good stability over time.
Conclusion: According to the findings of the present research, it can be concluded that flipped teaching and training of metacognitive strategies are effective in improving self-efficacy. Also, the teaching of metacognitive strategies in increasing students' self-efficacy in science lessons has a good stability over time. The effect of reverse education in increasing students' self-efficacy in science lessons has a good stability over time. It is suggested to investigate the effect of the flipped classroom teaching method on other variables such as the reduction of learned helplessness, problem solving skills, etc. in other courses and levels of study. On the other hand, it is suggested that the Ministry of Education and Culture hold educational workshops and in-service classes to reduce the traditional norms of teachers in order to inform them of the effectiveness of the reverse learning approach and educational platforms. Also, according to the technological infrastructure of this approach, educational content production workshops should be held for teachers.
©2023 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.
Send comment about this article