Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Educational Technology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Background and Objectives: The creation of an educational system that has the potential to educate students to live in a world which is constantly changing is one of the fundamental goals of education in developed societies, so it is not surprising that many educational systems decide to use modern educational technologies to achieve an advanced system. One of the reasons for the efficiency of advanced educational systems is that they study teaching and learning methods and always use the best and most effective methods. Therefore, it is predicted that using augmented reality as an emerging tool to promote innovation in conventional educational systems can facilitate the achievement of educational goals. On the other hand, multimedia designing principles in the digital educational applicatins is very important and must be considered in augmented reality design. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the use of conversational education style and formal education style in augmented reality on the learning rate of natural science course for eighth-grade high-school students.
Method: The statistical population of the study included eighth-grade schools of Alborz province in the academic year 2020 – 2021; and the students of three classes were assigned into two experimental groups and one control group. The research metod was experimental by pre-test-post-test design with a control group. The experiment group was trained by the augmented reality application aids in formal style and another experiment group with augmented reality application in conversational style and a control group with the convetnitonal instruction. The measurement instrument was a experimental science achievement test and its validity was assessed by teachers and educational technology experts.
Findings: The results of ANCOVA test showed that there was a significant difference among the scores of the control, conversational education and formal education groups on learning of experimental sciences (F=133.13, p <0.05); and thtat the use of a conversational teaching style compared to the conventional teaching had a significant effect on learning. The difference between the mean scores of the control group and the two groups of conversational education and formal education was significant (p <0.05). The use of both formal and augmented reality teaching styles was more effective as compared to the control group and led to better learning of experimental sciences in eighth-grade high-school students. Also, the difference between the mean scores of the formal education group and the conversational education group was significant (p <0.05); and the use of an augmented reality conversational teaching style was more effective than the formal teaching method and led to better learning of the experimental sciences.
Conclusion: According to the collected data and the results of the analyzes, the learning outcomes of the group trained with augmented reality application in the form of formal education were significant with the control group. On the other hand, the results of the comparison of the group that received training from the augmented reality application in the style of dialogue training with the control group were significant. Also, the results of comparing the group that was trained with the augmented reality application in the style of conversational education with the group that were trained with the augmented reality application in the style of formal education were significant and, in general, the use of conversational style was more effective for learning.


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