Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Educational Sciences, Bu Ali Sina College, Hamadan, Iran


The historical study of developed countries and their economic and industrial prosperity shows the serious attention of managers and planners of these countries to standardization in education. The education system of a country is the most vital part of the economy and the most popular institution for the state. In the United States, the report "A Dangerous Nation" was published and an alarm was sounded. In Science for All Americans, he published both a national slogan and strategies for teaching science. Then, the concept of "scientific literacy" was published in full detail and the report "Fundamentals and Strategies for Transformation". At that time, all those involved and consumers of science education were convinced that change was both necessary and inevitable. Eventually, all of these activities led to the development of an important work, "Science Education Standards." With the introduction of standards, important recommendations for change or transformation were proposed, such as "change of emphasis" - using all this information and using the principles of scientific research learning, to create a broad and massive change in the teaching of Iranian science, infrastructure proposals and In addition, we have provided an applicable and important one - we hope that this article will be of interest to decision makers of science education at the national level and as soon as possible with a great effort and with the cooperation of all classes, especially teachers and researchers and specialists in science education. , To see the change of science education standards in Iran.


Main Subjects

 ﮐﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ آﻣﻮزش و ﭘﺮورش در دوﻟﺖ ﻫﺸﺘﻢ - ﺧﺮداد [1] - اداره ﮐﻞ رواﺑﻂ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ وزارت آﻣﻮزش و 1384 ﻣﯽ84-83 ﭘﺮورش )آﻣﺎر ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎل  ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.( [  رﺿﺎ ﺷﺎﻓﻌﯽ، اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﺳﺎزی در آﻣﻮزش و ﭘﺮورش، 2] ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ دﻓﺘﺮ ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ و راﻫﺒﺮی   .3 و ص 2 ص ،(1382)اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ، [3] National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: The Imperatives for Educational Reform.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983. [4] National Science Education Standards        [5] AAAS (American Association for the       Advancement of Science).1989.Science for All Americans. New York: Oxford University Press. 
[6] AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Benchmarks for  Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.  ﺧﻠﺨﺎﻟﯽ، ﻣﺮﺗﻀﯽ، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ، ﻧﺸﺎﻧﮕﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺮای ﺳﻮاد ﻋﻠﻤﯽ [7] ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه212 ، ﻧﺸﺮﯾﻪ ﺷﻤﺎره 2061از اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات ﭘﺮوژه   .1380 ﺗﺮﺑﯿﺖ دﺑﯿﺮ ﺷﻬﯿﺪ رﺟﺎﺋﯽ، ﺗﯿﺮﻣﺎه   ﺧﻠﺨﺎﻟﯽ، ﻣﺮﺗﻀﯽ، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ، ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎ و راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎ ﺑﺮای [8] ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﺮﺑﯿﺖ دﺑﯿﺮ 2061 ﺗﺤﻮل، از اﻧﺘﺸﺎرات ﭘﺮوژه   .1380 ﺷﻬﯿﺪ رﺟﺎﺋﯽ، ﻣﺮداد [9] Rutherford, F.J. The role of inquiry in science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2: 80-84, 1964. [10] Oakes, J. Multiplying Inequalities: The Effect of Race, Social Class,and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science. Santa Monica,CA: RAND Corporation, 1990. [11] Bruer, J.T.Schools for Thought:A Science of Learning in the Classroom. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press, 1993. [12] Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning, Steve Olson and Susan Loucks-Horsley., page 22-23. [   ﺳﯿﻒ، ﻋﻠﯽ اﮐﺒﺮ، اﻧﺪازه ﮔﯿﺮی، ﺳﻨﺠﺶ و 13] ارزﺷﯿﺎﺑﯽ آﻣﻮزﺷﯽ، ﻧﺸﺮ دوران، ﻓﺼﻞ ﺳﻮم و ﻓﺼﻞ   .1384 ،ﺷﺸﻢ [14] How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom,, pages 569-591.  ﻋﻼم اﺧﺘﺼﺎری  NSF= National Science Foundations ACS= American Chemical Society NSTA= National Science Teachers Association NRC= National Research Council NCTM= National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES= National Science Education Standards k-12= Kindergarten to the end of high-school = ﺗﻤﺎم دوران ﺗﺤﺼﯿﻞ درﺳﯽ از ﮐﻮدﮐﺴﺘﺎن ﺗﺎ آﺧﺮ دﺑﯿﺮﺳﺘﺎ