Document Type : Original Research Paper


Department of Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad branch,


This study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' self-regulation and their critical thinking ability in language institutes. Furthermore, the role played by their length of teaching experience in their self-regulation and the relationship between their age and self-regulation were examined. To this end, 92 EFL teacherswere selected according to convenience sampling from different language institutes in Mashhad. They were requested to complete the 'Watson-Glaser's Critical Thinking Appraisal' and the 'Teacher Self-Regulation Scale' anonymously. The findings yielded via correlation supported the theoretical expectation of a linkage betweenself-regulation and critical thinking. Subsequent data analyses indicated that among the components of critical thinking, 'evaluation of arguments' and 'interpretation' have the highest correlations with teachers' self-regulation. In addition, significant correlations were found between teachers' self- regulation, their teaching experience, and their age. The conclusions and implications of the research are further discussed with reference to earlier findings.


Main Subjects

[1] Jarvis M., The psychology of effective learning and teaching, London, Nelson Thornes Ltd, 2005. [2] Williams M. and Burden R., Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000. [3] Richards J.C. and Nunan D., Second language teacher education, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990. [4] Ennis R.H., A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills, Educational Leadership, Vol. 43, No.2, 1985, pp. 44-48. [5] Zimmerman B.J., Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective, in: Boekaerts M., Pintrich P.R. and Zeidner M., (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 2000, pp.13–39. [6] Zimmerman B. and Schunk D., Reflections on theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement, In Zimmerman B. and Schunk D., (Eds.), Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement, Theoretical Perspectives (2nd Ed.), Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 2001, pp. 289-307. [7] Delfino M., Dettori G. and Persico D., An online course fostering self-regulation of trainee teachers, Psicothema, Vol.22 , No.2, 2010, pp. 299-305. [8] Dembo M.H., Learning to teach is not enough— Future teachers also need to learn how to learn, Teacher Education Quarterly, Vol.28, 2001, pp. 23-35. [9] Randi J., Teachers as self-regulated learners, Teachers' college record, Vol.106, No.9, 2004, pp.1825-1853. [10] Davis S.G. and Gray E.S., Going beyond testtaking strategies: Building self-regulated students and teachers, Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, Vol.1, No.1, 2007, pp. 31-47. [11] Phan H.P., Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning, Psicothema, Vol.22, No.2, 2010, pp. 284-292. [12] Dewey J., How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educational process, Lexington, MA, D.C. Heath, 1933. [13] Paul R., Critical thinking in the classroom, Teaching K-8, Vol.18, 1988, pp.49-51. [14] Halpern D.F., Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: Disposition, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring, American Psychologist, Vol.53, 1998, pp.449–455. [15] Facione P.A., Facione N.C. and Giancarlo C.A., The motivation to think in working and learning, in: Jones E., (Ed.), Preparing Competent College Graduates: Setting New and Higher Expectations for Student Learning. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997, pp. 67-79. [16] Watson G.B. and Glaser E.M., Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, London, the Psychological Corporation, 2002. [17] Kealey B.T., Holland J. and Watson M., Preliminary evidence on the association between critical thinking and performance in principles of accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Vol.20, No.1, 2005, pp.33–49. [18] Yeh Y.C., Nurturing reflective teaching during critical-thinking instruction in computer simulation program, Computers and Education, Vol.42, No.2, 2004, pp.181–194. [19] Oliver H. and Utermohlen R., An innovative teaching strategy: Using critical thinking to give learners a guide to the future, available at:, 1995. [20] Davidson B., A case for critical thinking in the English language classroom, TESOL Quarterly, Vol.32, No.1, 1998, pp.119-123. 199 A. Ghanizadeh Journal of Technology of Education/ Vol. 5, No.3, Spring 2011 201 [21] Thompson C., Teaching critical thinking in EAP courses in Australia, TESOL Journal, Vol.11, No.4, 2002, pp.15-20. [22] Pennycook A., The cultural politics of English as an international language, London, Longman, 1994. [23] Davidson B. and Dunham R., Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, JALT Journal, Vol.19, No.1, 1997, pp.43-57. [24] MacBride R. and Bonnette R., Teacher and atrisk students' cognitions during open-ended activities: Structuring the learning environment for critical thinking, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol.11, No.4, 1995, pp.373-388. [25] Yang S., How to be a critically reflective teacher in language teaching and learning, Sino-US English Teaching, Vol.2, No.5, 2005, pp.31-35. [26] Birjandi P. and Bagherkazemi M., The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ critical thinking ability and their professional success, English Language Teaching, Vol.3, No. 2, 2010, pp.135-145. [27] Zeidner M., Boekaerts M. and Pintrich P.R., Self-regulation: Directions and challenges for future research, In Boekaerts M., Pintrich P.R. and Zeidner M. (Eds), handbook of selfregulation, San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, pp. 749-768. [28] Dörnyei Z., The psychology of the language learner: individual differences in second language acquisition, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. [29] Pintrich P.R., The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning, International Journal of Educational Research, Vol.31, 1999, pp.459-470. [30] Linn M.C., Designing the knowledge integration environment, International Journal of Science Education, Vol.22, No.8, 2000, pp. 781–796. [31] Zimmerman B.J., Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective, Educational Psychologist, Vol.33, 1998, pp.73-86. [32] Schraw G., Crippen K.J. and Hartley K., Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning, Research in Science Education, Vol.36, 2006, pp.111–139. [33] Cross D.R. and Paris S.G., Developmental and instructional analyses of children’s metacognition and reading comprehension, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.80, 1988, pp.131–142. [34] Weimer M., Learner-centered teaching, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2002. [35] Zimmerman B.J. and Kitsantas A., Acquiring writing revision skill: Shifting from process to outcome self-regulatory goals, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.91, No.2, 1999, pp. 241-250. [36] Pressley M., El-Dinary P.B., Stein S., Marks M.B. and Brown R., Good strategy instruction is motivating and interesting, In Renninger A, Hidi S. and Krapp A.,(Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development,Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum, 1992, pp.333-358 [37] Baylor A., Kitsantas A. and Chung H., The instructional planning self-Reflective tool (IPSRT): A method for promoting effective lesson planning, Educational Technology, Vol. 41, No.2, 2001, pp.56-59. [38] Ghonsooly B. and Ghanizadeh A., Self-efficacy and self-regulation and their relationship among Iranian EFL teacher, submitted for publication. [39] Hajjarian R., The relationship between critical thinking ability of Iranian EFL students and their performance on open and closed reading tasks, Unpublished MA thesis, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, Iran, 2008. [40] Yesim C.A., Sungur S. and Uzuntiryaki E., Teacher self-regulation: examining a multidimensional construct, Educational Psychology, Vol.29, No.3, 2009, pp.345–356. [41] Ignatavicius D.D., 6 critical thinking skills for at-the-bedside success, Nursing Management, Vol. 32, No.1, 2001, pp.37-39. [42] Kuiper R., Enhancing metacognition through the reflective use of self-regulated learning strategies, The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, Vol.33, No.2, 2002, pp.78-87. [43] Astleitner H., Teaching critical thinking online, Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol.29, No.2, 2002, pp.53-76. [44] Pintrich P.R., The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning, In Boekaerts M., Pintrich P.R. and Zeidner M., (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 2000, pp. 451-502. [45] Bandura A., Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, Freeman, New York, NY, 1997. [46] Vygotsky L.S., Mind in society, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1978. [47] Mitchell R. and Myles F., Second language learning theories, Oxford, Hodder Arnold, 2004.