Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Payame Noor University ( PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Educational Psychology, Ravansar Education and Training, Ravansar, Iran

3 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Humanities, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran


Background and Objectives: New teaching tools provide opportunities for students to choose what interests them. Technology with multimedia learning tools allows students to engage in learning and learn with interest. For this purpose, the present study, with the aim of comparing face-to-face training with e-learning, at the level of students' cognitive learning in three areas of Bloom (knowledge, understanding, and application), has been conducted in the sixth-grade mathematics and science courses of Ravansar city.
Methods: The quasi-experimental research method and the sampling method was such that 60 sixth grade students of Niayesh Elementary School were selected to participate in this research using available sampling method and then they were randomly divided into two classes of 30  students. The  students of these two classes were simlulataneoulsy trained for two months, using face-to-face training for one class and e-learning training for the other class. For data collection, researcher-made math Educational Achievement Questionaire (with alpha of 0.87) and science Educational Achievement Questionaire (with alpha of 0.91)  were used. The research instrument included Bloom Learning Levels Questionnaire, which was designed to assess students' learning level in three areas (knowledge, understanding, and application) in math and science. These questionnaires were administered among the students and the data were collected. Initially, with the participation and cooperation of the subjects, in the experimental group 1 (face-to-face education) and experimental group 2 (electronic education), the mathematics and science academic progress questionnaire, which aims to measure the level of students' learning in the level of knowledge, understanding and application in mathematics and science courses It was designed, distributed and implemented among them, and data related to the pre-test was collected.. In order to analyze the data, in descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation were examined, and to examine the normality of the data, a single-sample test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov) and univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test the hypotheses.
Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that face-to-face training and e-learning are effective on students' cognitive learning levels (P <0.05). E-learning (math course with an average of 15.63 and science course with an average of 17.33) compared to face-to-face training (math course with an average of 14.73 and science course with an average of 16.08), has a greater role in increasing student learning and with the increase of e-learning in the teaching process, there will be a greater increase in the cognitive levels of students' learning. In addition, this effectiveness is higher in science (R .71) than in math (R .26).
Conclusion: The results showed that electronic and face-to-face training  have an effect on increasing the levels of cognitive learning of students. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers use (combined training) in the teaching and training process to use the beneficial aspects of both e-learning (more flexibility) and face-to-face (more social interaction). In a synthetic teaching method, the tutor tries to combine the learning content through face-to-face classroom tutorials and printed books with web-based interactive tutorials and virtual classrooms. Therefore,  by  creating effective learning opportunities, a richer environment for the learner will be created. Also, due to the greater effectiveness of e-learning in this research, more attention should be paied by the shcools and teachers to the development of teachers' computer and Internet skills as well as the increased use of this teaching method in the learning process.  


Main Subjects

©2023 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers. 

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