Background and Objectives: Female-headed households are responsible for providing material and spiritual livelihood for themselves and their family members. These women take care of the household without the regular presence or support of an adult male, and are responsible for managing the family financially, making major and vital decisions. Due to playing a dual role (parents) for their children, these women face problems such as loss of income, raising children, managing household affairs, working outside the home with low wages, etc., and enduring these life problems The reason for their different lifestyles compared to other women has led to the factors in which they have emerged. The aim of this study was to compare psychological hardiness, self-differentiation and psychological burnout in female-headed households and ordinary people in Marvdasht.
Methods: The present study was comparative-causal one. The statistical population of this study included female-headed households under the auspices of the Marvdasht Relief Committee. The sample group consisted of 80 people in two groups (40 female-headed households and 40 ordinary women) who were selected using the convenience sampling procedure. Data collection tool to assess the degree of psychological hardiness was the questionnaire of Kubasa et al. The face and content validity have been reported in various appropriate studies. Also, the reliability of this tool was obtained by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Differentiation Scale (DSI) was used to measure differentiation and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Women's psychological burnout was also assessed through the Smiths’ questionnaire; its validity and reliability of this questionnaire were evaluated in different demographic groups. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the questions of each dimension describe the same dimension and the questionnaire has a good internal consistency. The collected data were analyzed at two levels (descriptive statistics and inferential statistics). Mean and standard deviation values were calculated and MANOVA analysis test was run.
Findings: According to the age distribution table of statistical sample size, in the group of female-headed households, 35.00% of people were less than 30 years old and 12.5% of people were more than 40 years old. In the group of normal women, 30.00% of women were less than 30 years old and 20.00% of women were more than 40 years old. According to the statistical sample size distribution table, in terms of education, 35.00% of women heads of households were under diploma and 65.00% of them were above diploma and in the group of normal women, 32.5% were under diploma and 67.5% were above diploma. The results showed that there was a significant difference between psychological hardiness and its dimensions in normal and female heads of households. There was no significant difference between self-differentiation and dimensions in ordinary female-headed households. There was a significant difference between normal and female-headed households in terms of psychological burnout and its dimensions. The average psychological hardiness and psychological burnout was higher among female-headed households than those of normal women.
Conclusion: The results of this study can be used by relevant organizations with women heads of households and researchers interested in this field.