Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Physics Education, Tarbiat Dabir Shahid Rajaei University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Literature, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran


Nowadays، in an effort to improve learning process، application of the new and active techniques in teaching methods، instead of the traditional method of teaching is essential. One of the active teaching methods to science teaching is hands-on and laboratory methods. To improve some of the deficiencies in the laboratories، the use of simple tools and hand-made instrument is suggested. In this regard، in this study it is trying to be reviewed the effect of using the experimental hand-made on the first year high school girl students'' academic achievement، knowledge، comprehension and application in the subject of light-refraction. This study was a quasi-experimental research and it’s method is Solomon four groups design and the population is all high school girl students in Dehgolan city and its suburbs to the number of cases is 527. The samples are four groups including 97 people. The school selecting as well as the class selecting and assigning them to experimental and control groups، is random sampling. Two experimental groups taught with the use of the hand-made and two control groups taught with traditional method. Results of the analyses showed that there was a significant difference at 0.05 percent (p< 0.05) between the experimental and control groups in academic achievement and application. The findings of study suggest that the teaching light-refraction by hand-made are more effective than the traditional teaching without using of hand-made to development of learning and application. 


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