Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is the systematic study of the characteristics of an e-learning environment that is considered from all aspects in the teaching-learning process in the curriculum and its practical implementation. Learning environment means the space in which the most important aspects of educational activities and learner interaction with the teacher take place. This environment is influenced by culture, tradition, technology and richness in design and construction. Learning environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context or physical environment in which teaching and learning take place. E-learning is a creative approach to convey insights, skills, and information designed for a specific purpose. It is learner-oriented, interactive, flexible, expandable and innovative produced using the achievements of digital technology; and they are transmitted through network infrastructure and the Internet.
Methods: The research approach is qualitative using content analysis. To achieve the above explanation, the synthesis research method has been used. To find the features and components of the learning environment, the recent studies have been systematically selected, content analyzed, screened and categorized. The study population is comprised of the research conducted from 2000 to 2020 during which classification and screening have been done through content revision, and about 97 studies that were appropriate and met the required criteria were purposefully selected. First, with the performed analyses, coding and classification were performed and patterns, theoretical bases, and main themes were extracted. Nvivo-8 software was used to analyze the data by open and axial coding method.
Findings: Using content analysis, 29 subcategories were identified and the components of e-learning environment that were extracted using content analysis in 7 dimensions include: the learner, the teacher, curriculum approaches, the teaching-learning process, the teaching content, the physics of e-learning environment and evaluation. To assess the validity and reliability of the coding, the trust feature was used. it includes four criteria, namely reliability (the degree of belief in research findings), confirmability (the ability to identify the place from which the data of a particular study has come) and verifiability (the findings are practically based on the data) and transferability (the results of a qualitative study can be transferred to a different environment)
Conclusion: By classifying the sub-components, the main components were extracted and the conceptual model was designed. The learner dimension with six subcategories includes the learner’s individual characteristics, cultural considerations, the learners’ relationship with each other, the learner-teacher relationship, the learners’ presuppositions, the learners’ interaction with the environmental physics. The curriculum approaches include 5 subcategories, i.e., the learner-centered process, the social approach to education, the behavioral approach, the constructivist approach, and the constructivist approach. The teacher dimension with four subcategories includes the teacher competence, the interactive relationship with the learner, the teacher’s experiences. The teacher’s relationship with school authorities and the teaching-learning process with four subcategories include teaching and learning methods, curriculum planning, participatory learning strategies, the learner’s motivation. The educational content dimension with two subcategories includes content selection, the teaching aid materials and media. The physical dimension of the learning environment with four subcategories includes the physical environment, the environment layout, lighting, location, sound, safety in the learning environment. The evaluation dimension with four subcategories includes self-evaluation, homework, the teacher observation, the criteria in evaluation. Despite many efforts that have been made to achieve the goals of a national curriculum, there is no special design for the e-learning environment. Therefore, according to the model proposed in this research, the components of the model can be considered and the e-learning environment can be designed according to the curriculum approach.
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