flipped teaching method. The goal of this study was determining the effect of flipped teaching on students' math anxiety and math performance.
Methods: The statistical population of the study was comprised of all fifth grade female students in Marand City in the academic year of 1397-1398. The statistical sample was targeted I such a way that from two neighboring schools (Atieh School and Rah-e Behesht School) in the same area of Marand City that were selected as a convenience sample. Rah-e Behesht School was selected as the school using the traditional teaching method and Atieh School was selected as the one using the flipped instruction. Rah-e Behesht School with 27 students was selected as the control group and Atieh School with 29 students was selected as the experimental group. Mathematical Anxiety Scale was used to measure math anxiety of the subjects. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the mathematics course in the form of mathematical problems at different levels of cognitive domain, a researcher-made test with 20 questions that was approved by the experts in this field was used as the pre-test and post-test. Flipped teaching was used as four sessions per week of the fifth grade elementary math course in which two sessions per week were performed at home (during which learning occurred at home by using educational CDs prepared by the teacher) and two sessions per week were performed in the class during which activities were done.
Findings: The results of the MANCOVA and t-test showed that the four dimensions of mathematical anxiety (including learning anxiety, problem solving anxiety, math teacher anxiety and math evaluation anxiety) decreased significantly in the class using the flipped teaching method as compared to the traditional class. The math performance of the flipped teaching was also increased compared to that of the traditional class.
Conclusions: To explain the results, it can be said that the flipped class facilitates deep learning through learning activities in the classroom and increases the motivation of teachers and students and makes the classroom more attractive and communicative for them; thus, the students' self-confidence increases in learning math. In the flipped classroom, students experience different skills, such as open and closed questions, active listening, direct questions, addressing inconsistencies, as well as support and encouragement from the teacher which make the students capable of setting goals and solving problems. As a result, such students would have less anxiety in comparison to those who learn math in the traditional way. On the other hand, in this type of learning, more time can be spent in the classroom for thinking skills. Also, learners are more actively involved in learning and creating knowledge, and, at the same time, they are testing and evaluating their knowledge. The flipped classroom helps learners to gain a broad understanding of their learning styles and practices. Increasing teachers' knowledge in the area of flipped teaching and holding in-service courses for teachers, as well as providing flipped teaching information are among the practical suggestions of this article.
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