Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Agriculture Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Rural Civil Engineering, Agriculture Sciences & Natural Resources University of Khuzestan,Molasani,Iran

2 Department of Agriculture Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Background and Objectives: Metacognition as an individual's knowledge about how to learn in agricultural higher education centers should be taken into consideration because the familiarity with metacognitive topics and its role in the process of teaching learning in agricultural higher education centers is an attempt on the part of the educators to take an effective step so that they can play an influential role in the effectiveness of the country's agricultural higher education system. The education that is based on metacognition leads to lifelong learning in the learners in a way that cultivating such a trait in agricultural students leads to curiosity, responsibility, and the flourishing of creativity in them. In fact, by using the right methods of learning and studying (metacognition), agricultural learners and students can learn the material that is related to their field of study better and more easily.
Methods: The present applied research was a kind of descriptive survey method. The statistical population of the study were the faculty members of Agriculture at Shahid Chamran University (N = 82) and the faculty members of Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (N = 85) from which all the information was collected. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that in the first stage of its design, due to consultation with the research team and based on the theoretical foundations, the most important components of higher education and agriculture were identified. After determining these components, the criteria for each componentwere identified based on the theoretical foundations. The markers were identified during three Delphi stages through conducting interviews with 15 metacognitive experts. The method of selecting experts was in the form of snowballs. In the first stage, based on a review of the theoretical foundations and the viewpoints of the experts (in the form of open-ended questions and interviews), the indicators were identified for the main components related to metacognition. In the second stage of Delphi, a new questionnaire was prepared based on the Likert scale of five sections. After collecting the second stage questionnaires and analyzing the answers, the items with an average of 3.33 and above that were confirmed. The approved items were used to design the third stage questionnaire and to indicate the agreement or the disagreement of the experts. Having done the date analysis, those indicators with which 66% and above were finally approved.
Findings: The results showed that the agricultural higher education system of Khuzestan province is in an unsuitable level in terms of all components of metacognition except educational planning and educational environment.
Examination of the current situation of agricultural higher education based on the identified indicators showed that in the components of the  curiculum, education management and inservice training courses, planning, evaluation, educational environment and teaching based on the amount of one-sample t-test, there is a significant difference between the real value and the assumed value. The course has two criteria of participation and justification that the value of the t-test showed that there is a significant difference between the two real and assumed values. The component of education management and in-service training courses has two criteria of empowerment and justification and the t- test shows a significant difference between the real and the assumed value. The evaluation component has two criteria of participation and performance that the value of the t-test showed that there is a significant difference between the two real and assumed values. The component of the educational environment also has two criteria of motivation, facilitation- interaction in a way that the value of the t-test in all these three criteria shows a significant difference between the amounts of the two real and assumed values. The teaching component has three criteria, namely before teaching, during teaching, and after teaching. The value of the t-test shows a significant difference between the two real and the assumed values. The results of the F-test show that there is a significant difference between at the level of 0.001 between the academic rank of the respondents at the level of 0.005 and between the field of study of the faculty members in terms of performing the tasks that are related to metacognition.
Conclusion. In the components of the curriculum, education management and inservice training courses, educational evaluation, instructor or teaching duties, educational planning and learning environment, the current situation is not at an appropriate level. This means that the various indicators of metacognition are not properly observed in these components. Given the importance of these components in agricultural higher education in order to achieve its macro goals and vision, the system should be reviewed and revised based on the indicators that are of significance and priority. It is necessary for the policymakers and planners of agricultural higher education to consider the indicators related to the main components of the system which have been identified in this research in planning and designing the educational programs. The Policymakers and planners are advised to change the educational system in a way that the dominant  atmosphere in the classrooms would be participatory and cooperative and the content of the books be adjusted in such a way that critical thinking as a strategy of deep learning can be facilitated.


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