Thierer AD. How free computers are filling the digital divide. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation; 2001.
 Zangene H, Musavi R, Badali M. The Effects of Information and Communication Technologies on Promotion of Creative Thinking. Quarterly Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Sciences. 2013; 3(2): 59-39. Persian.
 Sharif Khalifeh Soltani SM, Karimi Alaviyeh M, Mazaheri M. Reviewing the Challenges of Using Information and Communication Technology in the Use and Learning Process. Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences. 2011; 1(3): 42 -23. Persian.
 Salehi H, Salehi Z. Integration of ICT in language teaching: Challenges and barriers. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning (IC4E,) IPEDR. 2012; 27: 215-219.
 UNESCO. Information and communication Technology in Education. A curriculum for schools and program of Teacher Development; 2002.
 Author’s group. Theoretical and practical foundations of educational technology (Volume 1). Tehran: Avaye Noor; 2014. Persian.
 Yusuf MO. Information and communication education: Analyzing the Nigerian national policy for information technology. International Education Journal. 2005; 6(3): 316-321.
 Zare’i Zarkaki I, Ghasem Tabar SA, Momeni Rad A. (2013). Theoretical and practical basis of Internet usage in teaching and learning process. Tehran: Avaya Noor Publication. Persian.
 Salajan F D. Problems and Possibilities of Integration ICT in European Union’s Higher Education: Perceptions of People Inside and Outside the European Commission’s e-learning Programs. [doctoral dissertation]. Teachers College, Colombia University; 2007.
 Nicolle PS, Lou Y. Technology adoption into teaching and learning by mainstream university faculty: A mixed methodology study revealing the “how, when, why, and why not. The Journal of Educational Quality & Quantity. 2008; 41: 105–121.
 Sanyal BC. New functions of higher education and ICT to achieve education for all. Paper prepared for the Expert Roundtable on University and Technology-for- Literacy and Education Partnership in Developing Countries, International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO, Paris; 2001.
 Attaran A, Ayati M. Fundamentals of ICT-based curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 2009; 3(12): 15- 47. Persian.
 Nowroozi M, Zandi F, Madani M. Ranking of Information Technology Application Methods in Learning Process - School Learning. Journal of Educational Innovations. 2008; 7(26): 9 - 34. Persian.
 Saffari SH. Investigating the Role of Information Technology in High School Students’ Learning in Tehran’s 8th District: Hidden curriculum’. [master’s thesis], University of Tehran, Tehran; 2015. Persian.
 Flecknoe MHow can ICT help us to improve education? Innovations in Education & Teaching International. 2002; 39(4): 271-280.
 Wagner AD. IT and Education for the Poorest of the Poor: Constraints, Possibilities, and Principles. TechKnowLogia. 2001; 48-50.
 Rahmani JN, Movahedi Nia N GH, Salimi GH (2006). Conceptual Model of Teaching Educational Roles of Information and Communication Technology in Education. Research in Curriculum Planning (Knowledge and Research in Educational Sciences-Curriculum). 2006; 20 (10-11): 49 – 66. Persian.
 Ghaderi S, Maghfouri M. Information Technology and Efficiency in Higher Education. Paper presented in the 1st International Conference on University Textbook, Organization for the Study and Compilation of Books in the Humanities of Universities, Tehran; 2006. Persian.
 Hosseini Shaon, A. Investigating the relationship between the amount of information technology use by the faculty and its impact on educational performance at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of Tehran University. [master’s thesis] University of Tehran. Tehran; 2007. Persian.
 Ahmadvand AM, Torkzadeh, Jafari A. Influences and Performance of Information Technology in Higher Education. A collection of articles of the first conference of technology education in higher education, Arak: Arak University Press; 2001. Persian.
 Aali SH. Information technology in education. Journal of Amoozeh. 2002: 15. Persian.
 Faraj Elahi M, Zarif Sanayee N. Education Based on Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education. Journal of Strategies for Education (Strategies for Medical Education). 2009; 2(4): 167-171. Persian.
 Nasirpour, H. Comparison of the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching of undergraduate between public and non-profit secondary schools in Karaj, [master’s thesis] University of Tehran, Tehran; 2012. Persian.
 Zameni FS, Kardan S. Influence of Application of Information and Communication Technology in Learning Math. Journal of the Information & Communication of Technology. 2010; 1(1), 23-38. Persian.
 Nami K. Investigating the relationship between faculty members’ use of ICT and their teaching - learning quality in faculties of psychology and education with social sciences of Tehran University. [master’s thesis] University of Tehran, Tehran; 2011. Persian.
 Downes T, Fluk A, Gibbons A, Leonard R, Mathews C, Oliver R, et al. (2001). Making better connections, “A project funded by the Commonwealth Department of education, Science and Training. Australia: Australian Curriculum Studies Association; 2001.
 Zamani BE, Azimi SA. How to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to do UK Primary Studies: Reviewing Books. Teaching guide (teacher). Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations. 2008; 27: 34-7.
 Doornekamp G. A comparative study on ICT as a tool for the evaluation of the policies on ICT in education. Studies in Evaluation. 2002; 28: 253-271.
 Yaghma A. Use and abuse technology in education: concerns about today schools. Growth of Educational Technology. 2012; 4(28). Persian.
 Fathihan M, Nowroozi M (2009). Study of Computer Literacy Patterns for Secondary Teachers in Iran. Paper presented in the 2nd Conference on E-Learning, Tehran. Persian.
 Maleki H, Gharmabei H. Position and Application of Information and Communication Technology in the Elementary Curriculum for Teachers and Teachers of Tehran. Journal of Educational Innovations. 2009; 8(31): 37 - 52. Persian.
 Thomas S, Ranga A. Education in the United State. New York: Ventages Press; 2000.
 Hosseini, S.M. The Relationship between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy and the Rate of Use (ICT) in the Teaching Process and Computer Self-Efficiency of Teachers of Controlled Schools in Karaj City. [master’s thesis] University of Tehran, Tehran; 2012. Persian.
 Talay EH, Bozorg H. Explaining the Necessity of Upbringing a Child (Pre-Primary) Based on Synthesis Research of Contemporary Experimental Evidence. Quarterly Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 31 (2): 91-118. Persian.
 Abdoli S, Mohammad Hassani H. Synthesis of components, tools and methods used in the evaluation of e-learning and providing a comprehensive model for evaluating e-learning. Quarterly Journal of Measuring and Educational Evaluation. 2013; 5(9): 153-214. Persian.
 Gandomi F, Sajjadi SM. Digital turn and its implications on teacher’s professional achievement: learning communities formation among teachers. Journal of Technology of Education. 2016; 4(40): 275- 291. Persian.
 Rahmani Neyshabour R, Ebrahimi Z. Collected Articles of Educational Technology. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University Press; 2007. Persian.
 Sheykhi S, Gholami Hara Dashti S. The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Education. Journal of Educational Studies. 2013; 54: 54-48. Persian.
 Afkhami Aqda M, Kamali Zadeh M, Shokorawa N. The Effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Education Process from the Perspective of Yazd University Students. The Journal of Toloo-e-behdasht. 2012; 11(1): 41-52. Persian.
 Mohammadi AM. Influence of Information and Communication Technologies in Language Learning and Teaching. Journal of Foreign Language Studies. 2008; 45: 139-115. Persian.
 Kharamani N, Asadi F, Darbazzin M, Asvar S. The Relationship between the Role of Information and Communication Technology with Teaching and Learning of Students. Paper presented in the 1st National Conference on Science and Technology in Iran, the Association for the Promotion of Science and Technology Fundamental Techniques; 2015. Persian.
 Saeedi Seyuki M, Hosseinagholi Zadeh R. A Look at the Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Process of Teaching - Learning with an Emphasis on the Constructivist Approach. Paper presented in the 4th Conference of the Philosophy of Philosophy of Education in Iran, the Transition in the Education System of Iran, University of Mashhad, 9-8; 2013. Persian.
 Abu Ziden A, Ismail IR, Spian R, Kumutha K. The Effects of ICT Use in Teaching and Learning on Students’ Achievement in Science Subject in a Primary School in Malaysia. Malaysia Journal of Distance Education. 2011;13(2): 19-32 .
 Bamigboye OB, Aderibigbe NA, Buraimo OK. Information Communication and Dialogue in conflict management: A study of Olabisi Onabanjo University Students and Ago- Iwoye Community Conflict. Journal of Library and Information Science (JOLIS). 2007; 4 (1 - 2): 23 – 38.
 Okeh OD, Opone MC. Information and Communication Technology (ICT): A veritable tool for national Educational Growth. Journal of Academics. 2007; 2(3): 234 – 246.
 Flecknoe M. How can ICT help us to improve education. Innovations in Education & Teaching International. 2002; 39(4): 271-280.
 Abbasi Asl M, Zahed Babelan A, Namvar Y. Investigating Factors Related to the Use of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning Process by Teachers. Journal of Education and Evaluation (Educational Sciences). 2011; 4(13): 95-105. Persian.
 Mohammadi M, Torkzadeh J, Bagheri A, Amiri KH, Azadi A. The relationship between teachers’ perceptions of school culture and their innovative adaptability to the use of information and communication technology in the learning process-learning process. Journal of Educational Innovations. 2012; 41. Persian.
 Solaimanpour J, Khalkhali AL, Raayat Konnadeh Fallah L. (2010). The Effect of Teaching Method Based on Information and Communication Technology in Creating Sustainable Learning in Empirical Science. Quarterly Journal of Information and Communication Technology in Education. 2010; 1(2), 93-76. Persian.
 Zofan S. Application of New Technologies in Education. Tehran: Publication Samat; 2011. Persian.
 Pourmohammad Bagher L, Pourmohammad Bagher E. The Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Education of Academic Centers. Journal of Educational Technology. 2008; 3(1): 67-75. Persian.
 Zofan S, Lotfipoor K. The use of teaching materials for the second year of the Teaching Media for Teachers. Teacher Training Centers. Tehran: Iran Printing and Publishing Company; 2005. Persian.
 Afzalnya MR. Learning Technology. Tehran: Samt Publishing; 2012. Persian.
 Asadi M, Gholami KH. Synthesis Research on the Effective Teaching Pattern in Higher Education. Journal Management System. 2016; 5(9): 113-144. Persian.