Document Type : Review Paper


Curriculum Planning, Department of Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


Background and Objective:The introduction of ICT in education has revolutionized traditional styles and challenged learning theories. The achievements of such a presence have led to virtual classrooms, smart universities, virtual universities and e-learning in general. In fact, communication in the world of education has become the basis for all interactions between professors / learners and learners and between educational and governmental institutions and among other institutions. The use of ICT in today's world has led to major changes in teaching and learning: the abundance of information changes students' perceptions of the world; wide distribution and easy access to information have changed the relationship between faculty and students; flexibility transforms the dimensions of space and time of human educational life. All of these changes are evidence that ICT has gradually become an essential element of educational reform and innovation in today's society, bringing our education system closer to the age of e-learning. The education has been influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and these technologies have influenced teaching, learning and related researches. The purpose of this research was to provide a systematic study and to present a combination of studies in the field of the situation and the role of information and communication technology in the teaching-learning process.
Methods: The method was qualitative and was carried out in the form of research synthesis. Relevant research resources were selected, categorized and analyzed from year 2000 to 2016 in a systematic manner; then, in a tiny screening stage, 29 researches that have intended criteria were selected. Then, a synthesis of their findings was presented in accordance with the principles of composition, rethinking and rearrangement of data.
Findings:: The findings showed that there are two trends between ICT and the teaching and learning processes: a) Facilitating trend; b) Stream making trend. While these two trends overlap in some cases and it is difficult to draw a clear border between them, they have features which they could be separated from each other and their aspects, features and impacts on teaching–learning processes could be studied. Accordingly, the effects of Facilitating trend on the teaching-learning process be revealed in the short term; these effects are often displayed in hardware and affect the appearance of the components of the teaching -learning process. The stream making trend of ICT in the teaching-learning process involves changes that affect the quality and condition of teaching-learning processes at a deeper and more complex level. These changes can be considered as some form of long-term results of the Facilitating trend which can be appears as software. In fact, the use of technology tools in the short term has changed the form of education, but its consequences in the long-term and in conjunction with other influential factors have led to the emergence of new approaches and trends in education and the general trend of education has undergone fundamental changes.
Conclusion: The result obtained in this study indicates that the flow-making process of ICT is definable with ten components: 1) the constructive nature of ICT; 2) the relationship between ICT and personalization of the teaching and learning process; 3) ICT in the service of cultivating multiple intelligences; 4) The relationship between ICT and the motivational effect of learning; 5) The relationship between ICT and student-centered learning; 6) Improving and enhancing thinking skills; 7) The relationship between ICT and evaluation of learning; 8) Emphasis on self-learning; 9) Shaping deep, fast and sustainable learning; and 10) changing the role of the teacher.


Main Subjects

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