Modern Educational Approaches
Z. Abolhasani; M. Dehghani; M. Javadipour; K. Salehi; N. Mohammadhasani
Background and Objectives: Design thinking is a participatory problem-solving method with a human-centered approach that enhances innovation by enhancing learners' creative thinking abilities. Although design thinking has become an integral part of design and engineering as well as business, it can have ...
Background and Objectives: Design thinking is a participatory problem-solving method with a human-centered approach that enhances innovation by enhancing learners' creative thinking abilities. Although design thinking has become an integral part of design and engineering as well as business, it can have a positive impact on the 21st century education in other fields, too. Using design thinking in educational settings, students read, think, and reason logically and can solve complex problems. However, there are several definitions of design thinking, as many authors have stated that there is no fixed universal definition of design thinking. Therefore, it seems necessary to try to understand and demystify design thinking. In this regard, the purpose of this study researchis to analyze the concept of design thinking and study the models of design thinking and definitions of the 21st century skills as well as the role of design thinking on the 21st century skills by systematic collecting, evaluating and reviewing the related articles on this topic.Methods: In this study, searches were performed in the databases of Eric, ScienceDirect, Taylor and Francis, Springer, and Google Scholar, and all articles indexed in their databases from 2000 to 2020 were collected in English. After searching the databases, the relevant articles were selected and evaluated according to the CASP evaluation criteria. After reading the abstracts and the initial review and removal of irrelevant articles, the full version of 83 articles was prepared and reviewed. Then, among the available articles, the relevant ones were selected and evaluated for detailed evaluation based on CASP evaluation criteria.Also, in the manual search that was done through the sources of articles, according to the nature of design thinking, 3 reference sites were added to present the model and 3 books and 2 websites were added for the skills of the 21st century. Finally, 54 articles, books and websites were selected for detailed study.Findings: According to the obtained/aforementioned studies, they were categorized in four groups: 1- Articles that have explained the skills of the 21st century. 2- Articles that have offered a new definition of design thinking. 3- Articles that have presented new models of design thinking. 4- Articles that have used the models in implementing the design and improving the skills of the 21st century. Given the results, despite the similarities and connections that can be identified in the context of 21st century skills, different terms and definitions are often used to describe a skill or a set of skills that cause ambiguity and confusion. In this regard, the skills that are mentioned in all frameworks are as follows: cooperation and communication; ICT literacy; social skills; creativity; critical thinking; problem solving, production of quality products and productivity. The results of the studies also showed that the implementation of design thinking leads to strengthening problem-solving skills, innovation and creativity, and the skill of using integrated thinking. Continuing the implementation of design thinking along with empathy, cooperation, teamwork leads to self-confidence and value of the learner.Conclusion: According to the research results, in general, it can be said that today's society needs to educate a generation equipped with the 21st century skills to advance the high goals of the society, so paying attention to creating the necessary conditions for the implementation of design thinking plays a unique role in raising a productive generation.
S. M. Seyedaliyan; K. Salehi
Background and Objectives: Knowledge and skill in mathematics are considered as one of the most essential individual skills for living in modern societies. For this reason, mathematics is seen as a major discipline in education. One of the problems in the field of education today is the decrease in students' ...
Background and Objectives: Knowledge and skill in mathematics are considered as one of the most essential individual skills for living in modern societies. For this reason, mathematics is seen as a major discipline in education. One of the problems in the field of education today is the decrease in students' interest in learning, especially in subjects such as mathematics. Despite its wide range of applications, mathematics and mathematical thinking are considered as complex around the world, and teaching mathematics is often a difficult task. Many students avoid mathematics or show their true ability in mathematics less than usual, so the study of factors affecting the learning of mathematics in recent decades has attracted the attention of many experts and educators. Due to the lack of studies in our country Iran and the importance of educational materials and their effects, making a comparison between traditional teaching method and the method based on the use of technology and teaching aids was necessary to examine its impact on improving the learning of math students in high school. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this study is based on the principle that the use of teaching aids is effective in learning mathematics better.Methods: For this purpose, a study with a quantitative approach, using quasi-experimental method and pre-test-post-test design with a control group was used. The statistical population includes all high school students in Mahdi Shahr city from Semnan province .Thrity-three female students in grade 12 whose field of study was mathematics were selected and assigned randomly into two experimental and controlled groups. Data collection was done using a teacher-made achievement test with validity and reliability considerations. After validation of the intervention protocol, the training program was performed on the experimental group in 12 sessions of 2 hours per week using teaching aids.Findings: Multivariate and univariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA & ANCOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results showed that teaching mathematics with the help of teaching aids and using information technology had a significant effect on students' learning rate. The groups were almost identical before applying the independent variable, but after the experimental period, there was a significant difference between their scores which could be related to the teaching method (p<0.05). The squared value of the obtained ETA shows that 71% of the variance of the dependent variable is derived from the independent variable. Supplementary studies showed that at the level of individual courses, the difference related to the topics of conic sections and circles is significant (p < 0.01). This means that the post-test scores of conical and circular sections in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group, which indicates the positive effect of the intervention program. Also, according to the ETA squared scores, it can be said that in the test of conical sections 29% and in the test of circle 66% of the changes are due to the effect of the teaching program with the help of teaching aids and information technology.Conclusions: Overall, the findings showed that teaching with the help of ICTs can improve the learning process and achievement in mathematics by facilitating the transfer of lessons, improving the learning process and its sustainability, enhancing learning motivation, improving the grades and problem-solving skills. This program can be used as a useful and effective intervention for improving the learning of mathematics.
Electronic learning- virtual
M. Ghorbankhani; K. Salehi
Professors and trainers are the main pillars of the teaching-learning process who play an undeniable role in improving the quality of the educational system. The present study was conducted to identify the characteristics of successful instructors of virtual education. For this purpose, phenomenological ...
Professors and trainers are the main pillars of the teaching-learning process who play an undeniable role in improving the quality of the educational system. The present study was conducted to identify the characteristics of successful instructors of virtual education. For this purpose, phenomenological method was used to identify and delineate the depth of the phenomenon under the study. Data from 14 semi-structured interviews with students and professors of the University of Tehran were gathered and analyzed. Data analysis was conducted based on Colaizzi's strategy. Analysis of the data from the interviews itenfited four main categories including: electronic skills, educational features, researchist features and moral characteristics and behavior. The findings showed that effective teaching in virtual education requires special capabilites and the current status is far from the ideal situation.