عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, gamification has been turned into a strong motive tool to engage and increase users’ participation in the educational systems. Previous researches indicate generally the importance and efficiency of gamification methods to improve educational processes, but in these researches, the characteristics of each audience and its effect on their behavior were not investigated. In this research, we attempt to study individual characteristics such as their gender and education background on their effectiveness rate from gamification. For this study, we designed an educational system based on gamification approach named as “Elenow” and gave it to the students who were studying “Technical writing and presentation method” course. Elenow is a web-based system which is accessible on users’ mobile. In addition to the data collected by Elenow system, a questionnaire was given to the audiences and asked them about the effectiveness of gamification process implemented by the Elenow system. Also, the information about the students’ educational background was extracted from the university educational systems. The most important findings of this research revealed that the individual characteristics of audiences are significant factors on their effectiveness from gamification. Therefore, we can’t consider a single approach for all individuals participating in a gamified activity.
 Seaborn, Katie, and Deborah I. Fels. “Gamification in theory and action: A survey”, International Journal of human-computer studies, 2015.
 Salen, Katie, Katie Salen Tekinbaş, and Eric Zimmerman. “Rules of play: Game design fundamentals”, MIT press, 2004.
 Mackay, Daniel. “The fantasy role-playing game: A new performing art”. McFarland, 2017.
 Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon, Jonas Heide Smith, and Susana Pajares Tosca. Understanding video games: The essential introduction. Routledge, 2013.
 A. Dignan, Game frame: Using games as a strategy for success, Simon and Schuster, 2011.
 Huotari, Kai, and Juho Hamari. “Defining gamification: a service marketing perspective,” in Proceeding of the 16th international academic MindTrek conference, 2012.
 Robson, Karen, Kirk Plangger, Jan H. Kietzmann, Ian McCarthy, and Leyland Pitt. “Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification.” Business Horizons. 58 (4): 411–420, 2015.
 Hakulinen, Lasse, Tapio Auvinen, and Ari Korhonen. “The effect of achievement badges on students’ behavior: An empirical study in a university-level computer science course.” International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET). 2015; 10(1):18-29.
 Dicheva, Darina, Christo Dichev, Gennady Agre, and Galia Angelova. “Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study.” Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2015; 18(3):75.
 Law, Foong Li, Zarinah Mohd Kasirun, and Chun Kiat Gan. “Gamification towards sustainable mobile application.” In Software Engineering (MySEC), 2011 5th Malaysian Conference in, pp. 349-353. IEEE, 2011..
 Zichermann, Gabe, and Christopher Cunningham. Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps, "O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2011.
 Blohm, Ivo, and Jan Marco Leimeister. “Design of IT-Based Enhancing Services for Motivational Support and Behavioral Change.” 2013.
 Kumar, Janaki. “Gamification at work: Designing engaging business software.” International Conference of Design, User Experience, and Usability; 2013: Springer.
 Dubois, Daniel J., and Giordano Tamburrelli. “Understanding gamification mechanisms for software development.” Proceedings of the 2013 9th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering; 2013: ACM.
 Denny, Paul. “The effect of virtual achievements on student engagement.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp. 763-772. ACM, 2013.
 Hanus, Michael D., and Jesse Fox. “Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance,” Computers & Education. 2015; 80:152-61.
 Vasilescu, Bogdan, Alexander Serebrenik, Prem Devanbu, and Vladimir Filkov. “How social Q&A sites are changing knowledge sharing in open source software communities”, Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work & social computing; 2014: ACM.
 Hamari, Juho, David J. Shernoff, Elizabeth Rowe, Brianno Coller, Jodi Asbell-Clarke, and Teon Edwards. “Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning.” Computers in Human Behavior. 2016; 54:170-9.
 Deterding, Sebastian, Dan Dixon, Rilla Khaled, and Lennart Nacke. “From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification,” Proceedings of the 15th international academic Mind Trek conference: Envisioning future media environments; 2011: ACM.
 Zichermann, Gabe, and Joselin Linder. “Game-based marketing: inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges, and contests.” John Wiley & Sons; 2010.
 Harter, James K., Frank L. Schmidt, and Theodore L. Hayes. “Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis.”, Journal of applied psychology. 2002; 87(2):268.
 De-Marcos, Luis, Adrián Domínguez, Joseba Saenz-de-Navarrete, and Carmen Pagés. “An empirical study comparing gamification and social networking on e-learning,” Computers & Education. 2014; 75:82- 91.
 Jehanzeb, Khawaja, and Nadeem Ahmed Bashir. “Training and development program and its benefits to employee and organization: A conceptual study.” European Journal of business and management. 2013; 5(2).
 Sung, Sun Young, and Jin Nam Choi. “Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations,” Journal of organizational behavior, pp. 393--412, 2014.
 Cafazzo, Joseph A., Mark Casselman, Nathaniel Hamming, Debra K. Katzman, and Mark R. Palmert. “Design of an mHealth app for the self-management of adolescent type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.” Journal of medical Internet research. 2012; 14(3).
 Gooch, Daniel, Asimina Vasalou, Laura Benton, and Rilla Khaled. “Using gamification to motivate students with dyslexia.” Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2016: ACM.
 Musthag, Mohamed, Andrew Raij, Deepak Ganesan, Santosh Kumar, and Saul Shiffman. “Exploring micro-incentive strategies for participant compensation in high-burden studies.” Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Ubiquitous computing; 2011: ACM.
 Guin, Theo Downes-Le, Reg Baker, Joanne Mechling, and Erica Ruyle. “Myths and realities of respondent engagement in online surveys.” International Journal of Market Research. 2012; 54(5):1-21.
 Zichermann G. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in gamification. Gamification Summit, San Francisco. 2011; 27.
 Werbach, Kevin, and Dan Hunter. “The gamification toolkit: dynamics, mechanics, and components for the win.” Wharton Digital Press; 2015.
 Chorney, Alan Ivan. “Taking the game out of gamification.” 2013.
 Nehring, Natalia, Nilufar Baghaei, and Simon Dacey. “Improving students’ performance through gamification: a user study.” In B. McLaren (Ed.), CSEDU 2018 (pp. pp).
 van Roy, Rob, and Bieke Zaman. “Need-supporting gamification in education: An assessment of motivational effects over time.” Computers & Education 127 (2018): 283-297.
 T Papp, Theresa A. “Gamification Effects on Motivation and Learning: Application to Primary and College Students.” International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), 2017
 De-Marcos, Luis, Antonio Garcia-Cabot, and Eva Garcia-Lopez. “Towards the Social Gamification of e-Learning: A Practical Experiment.” International journal of engineering education 33, no. 1 (2017): 66.
 da Rocha Seixas, Luma, Alex Sandro Gomes, and Ivanildo José de Melo Filho. “Effectiveness of gamification in the engagement of students.” Computers in Human Behavior 58 (2016): 48-63.
 Chaudhuri, Surajit, Umeshwar Dayal, and Vivek Narasayya. “An overview of business intelligence technology.” Communications of the ACM 54, 2011.