فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت سلامت، ایمنی و محیط زیست، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، تهران، ایران

2 گروه علم اطلاعات و دانش‌شناسی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 گروه هوشبری، دانشکده پیراپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: باوجود ظهور و پیشرفت فناوری­های نوین و به دنبال آن تغییر روش زندگی در دهه­های اخیر، سیستم‌های آموزش همان روش آموزش سنتی خود را حفظ کرده و خود را مطابق با ویژگی­های نسل دیجیتال تغییر نداده­اند. این در حالی است که ویژگی­های اهالی دیجیتال بر روش­های یاددهی-یادگیری آن­ها نیز مؤثر بوده است. یکی از جدیدترین تحولات رخ‌داده در حیطه فناوری­های نوین، بازی­وارکردن محیط­های آموزشی یا به­ عبارتی استفاده از عناصر بازی در محیط­های غیربازی است. بازی­وارسازی، استفاده از مکانیک­های بازی، زیبایی­شناسی و تفکر بازی جهت درگیرکردن افراد، انگیزه­بخشی به اعمال، ارتقاء یادگیری و حل مسئله است. استفاده از عناصر بازی در آموزش الکترونیکی نیز در کشورهای پیشرفته و حتی کشورهای درحال‌توسعه جایگاه ویژه­ای جهت مواجهه با مشکلات آموزش کنونی یافته است. این پژوهش با هدف مرور مقاله­های قلمرو «بازی­وارسازی در آموزش الکترونیکی»، ارائه طرحی کلی از موضوع­های مورد پژوهش و بررسی اثربخشی آن در آموزش، با روش مرور نظام­مند انجام شده است. 
روش‌ها‌: جستجوی نظام‌مند مقالات در بهمن 1396 انجام گرفت. بعد از جستجو در پایگاه­های اطلاعاتی  Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Siencedirect, Wiley, Taylor&Francis, Emerald با واژگان کلیدی Gamification, gamify, and gameful همراه با online, web, tutorial, modual, e-learning, electronic, "e-course و بر اساس معیارهای ورودی، 60 مقاله انتخاب شد. در ادامه مقاله­های منتخب به لحاظ جامعه پژوهش، تعداد عناصر بازی مورداستفاده، عناصر بازی مورد استفاده، دوره­های آموزشی بازی­وارشده و موضوع مقالات بررسی شد. 
یافته‌ها: نمونه مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش­ها شامل دانش­آموزان مقاطع تحصیلی مختلف و دانشجویان رشته­های گوناگون همچون کامپیوتر، روانشناسی، مهندسی ساختمان، توریسم، کتابداری، روزنامه­نگاری و پرستاری بود. در این مطالعات، اثربخشی بازی­وارسازی بر یادگیری مباحث مختلف آموزشی همچون برنامه­نویسی، زبان انگلیسی، ریاضی، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، اقتصاد، روانشناسی، فیزیک، زبان آلمانی، زیست‌شناسی و پزشکی مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است. اثربخشی بازی­وارسازی بر مشارکت، یادگیری، انگیزه، اضطراب، ارزیابی همتایان، همکاری متقابل، بهینه­سازی وب­سایت آموزشی، کاهش هزینه و بارکاری اساتید ازجمله حوزه­های موضوعی این مقالات بود. بررسی اثربخشی یکی از عناصر بازی بر رفتار نیز در این مطالعات مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است مانند اثربخشی تابلو امتیاز بر یادگیری و مشارکت؛ اثربخشی تابلو امتیاز بر اضطراب؛ اثربخشی امتیاز بر انگیزه؛ اثربخشی آواتار نیمه­گمنام بر انگیزه و مشارکت؛ و اثربخشی آواتار بر انگیزه. ازجمله سایر موضوعات مورد بررسی در این مطالعات می‌توان به بررسی تفاوت­های جنسیتی در برخورد با بازی­وارسازی، بررسی امکان پیش­بینی عناصر بازی مناسب برای کاربران مختلف، تعیین عناصر بازی­وارسازی مؤثر بر یادگیری و انگیزه، و بررسی امکان استفاده از عناصر بازی متناسب با نوع انگیزه فراگیر اشاره کرد. عنصر بازی امتیاز، تابلو امتیاز، نشان، سطوح، چالش و بازخورد بیشتر از سایر عناصر مورد استفاده قرار گرفته بودند. ازجمله سایر عناصر بازی مورد استفاده در محیط‌های آموزشی می‌توان به آواتار، نوار پیشرفت، اشتراک اجتماعی، محدودیت زمانی، رهایی از شکست، مأموریت و قانون اشاره نمود. تعداد عناصر بازی مورداستفاده در این مطالعات متفاوت است. در برخی مطالعات تنها یک عنصر بازی و در سایر مطالعات دو، سه و یا حتی تعداد بیشتری از عناصر بازی مورداستفاده و ارزیابی قرارگرفته است.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج حاکی از اثربخشی محیط­های آموزشی بازی­وارشده بر افزایش یادگیری، مشارکت و انگیزه فراگیران است. این امر به خاطر ویژگی­هایی است که در بطن بازی­وارسازی وجود دارد؛ چراکه بازی­وارسازی منجر به تغییر رفتار پیش­بینی شده و تجربه­­های یادگیری گسترده­ می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effectiveness of information literacy online tutorials on student learning: A systematic review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Batooli 1
  • F. Fahimnia 2
  • N. Naghshineh 2
  • F.S. Mirhosseini 3

1 Department of Health, Safety and Environment Management, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Knowledge & Information Science, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Paramedical, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives:Despite the emergence and advancement of new technologies and, consequently, the change in lifestyle in recent decades, education systems have maintained the same traditional method of education and have not changed according to the characteristics of the digital generation. Meanwhile, digital generation features have been effective in learning-teaching approaches. One of the most important and recent developments in the field of modern technologies is the use of gamification, that is, the use of game elements in non-game contexts. Gamification is using game mechanics, game aesthetics, and game thinking to engage people, motivate them, and promote learning, and problem-solving. The use of game elements in educational environments has been found in developed countries and even in developing countries as a special place to face current educational problems. The purpose of this study was to review the studies in the field of ‘Gamification in e-learning’ and to present the content analysis of this field and its effectiveness in education.
Methods: A systematic search of articles was done in February 2018. After searching the databases Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, and Emerald with keywords Gamification, gamify, and gameful and also online, web, tutorial, module, e-learning, electronic, and e-course, and based on input criteria, 60 relevant articles were selected in this study. The selected articles were analyzed in terms of game elements, gamified e-learning courses, and the purpose of the articles.
Findings: Target population in this reviewed article included high school, secondary school, and elementary school students, and also university students from a variety of disciplines, including Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, Business Management, Building Engineering, Computer, Informatics, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology, Journalism, Construction Engineering, Nursing, and Tourism. In these studies, the effectiveness of gamification on learning various educational topics such as the programming languages, English language, data structure and algorithm, mathematics, economy and politics, psychology, informatics, physics, German language, medicine, and biology, have been studied. The effectiveness of gamification on participation/engagement, learning, motivation, anxiety, peer assessment, collaboration, website optimization, cost reduction, and faculty load were among the subject areas studied in these articles. Effectiveness of game elements on behaviors such as leaderboard on anxiety, point on motivation, leaderboard on learning and engagement, half-anonymity avatar on motivation and engagement and, avatar on motivation are among other topics covered in these studies. Furthermore, a few research has been done on determining the game elements affecting learning and motivation, the possibility of predicting the game elements suitable for different users, and gender differences in dealing with gamification. The game element point, leaderboard, badge, levels, challenge, and feedback were used more than other elements. Other elements of the game used in educational environments include avatar, progress bar, social sharing, unexpected rewards, time limit, freedom to fail, currency, missions, and rules/goals. The number of game elements used in these studies varies. In some studies, only one element of the game has been used, and in other studies, two, three, or even more elements of the game have been used and evaluated.
Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness of gamified e-learning environments to increase learning, engagement, and motivation of learners. This result is due to the features that are at the heart of gamification; because gamification leads to a change in behavior and extensive learning experiences.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Information literacy
  • Online tutorials
  • Education
  • students
  • online education

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