کاربرد هوش عاطفی در فرایند آموزش طراحی معماری، جستاری در الزامات رشته معماری از حیث مهارت‌های عاطفی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 معاون دانشکده

2 دانشجوی دکتری معماری اسلامی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استاد دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بسیاری از روانشناسان شناخت‌گرا بر یکپارچه‌سازی وجوه شناختی و عاطفی آدمی تأکید می‌کنند. از میان نظریات مطرح‌شده در این راستا به‌ویژه در عرصه آموزش و یادگیری، نظریه معطوف به مفهوم"هوش عاطفی"شایان توجه است. این مفهوم تفاوت‌های افراد را در درک، پردازش و استفاده از اطلاعات عاطفی در فرایند شناخت و تفکر تبیین می‌کند. بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهند که این تفاوت‌ها پیش‌بینی کننده‌ای قوی از موفقیت افراد در تحصیل، حرفه و حتی زندگی آن‌ها به شمار می‌رود. این پژوهش با رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی و با روش استدلال منطقی، با هدف درک نقش هوش عاطفی در اثربخشی آموزش معماری و به‌طور خاص آموزش طراحی معماری در کارگاه طراحی انجام‌شده است. در این راستا نقش هوش عاطفی شاگردان و اساتید معماری در مسائل مربوط به یادگیری ازجمله سازگاری، مشارکت و انگیزش و نیز در تفکر طراحی شاگردان معماری موردبررسی قرارگرفته است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد سطح هوش عاطفی شاگردان و حتی اساتید معماری می‌تواند به‌عنوان عاملی تعیین‌کننده در موفقیت شاگردان معماری به‌حساب آید. از سوی دیگر، ازآنجاکه پژوهش‌ها از قابلیت ارتقاء هوش عاطفی خبر می‌دهند؛ می‌توان سازوکارهایی را برای ارتقاء هوش عاطفی شاگردان معماری پیشنهاد کرد تا به‌عنوان راهکاری مؤثر برای یکپارچه‌سازی وجوه شناختی و عاطفی در برنامه کارگاه‌های طراحی معماری گنجانده شود.

چکیده تصویری

کاربرد هوش عاطفی در فرایند آموزش طراحی معماری، جستاری در الزامات رشته معماری از حیث مهارت‌های عاطفی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Emotional Intelligence in the Process of Architectural Design Education: An inquiry in the requirements of architectural discipline with reference to emotional skills

نویسندگان [English]

  • parisa hashempour 1
  • masoumeh ahmadi 2
  • Hamid Nadimi 3
2 Phd student in Islamic Architecture, Architecture & Urbanism Faculty, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.
3 shahid beheshti university
چکیده [English]

Many cognitive psychologists put emphasis on an integrative view of cognitive and affective faculties of the mind. In the course of theoretical developments in the above area, theorizing on the concept of "emotional intelligence" is considerable. The concept of emotional intelligence explains how people are different in perceiving, processing, and using emotional information in the process of cognition and thinking. Studies show that those differences are strong predictors of the individuals’ success in their education, profession, and even their lives, architectural student is no exception. The present study- With a descriptive-analytical approach and using logical reasoning method, explores the role of emotional intelligence in developing an effective architectural education, particularly at the design studio context. In this regard, a study was conducted on how emotional intelligence influences the students’ design thinking, as well as those properties that affect the process of learning, such as adaptability, engagement, and motivation. Given the possibility of nurturing the emotional intelligence, maintained by the research findings, teaching tactics can be developed to enhance emotional intelligence of design students as an effective way to integrate cognitive and affective aspects in the course of design studio instruction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emotional intelligence
  • Requirements
  • Architectural Design Education
  • Design Thinking
  • Intervention Program

[1] Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers' emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327-358.

[2] Dolan, R. J. (2002). Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science, 298(5596), 1191-1194.

[3] Compton, R. J. (2003). The interface between emotion and attention: A review of evidence from psychology and neuroscience. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 2(2), 115-129.

[4] Damasio, A. R., & Sutherland, S. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. Nature, 372(6503), 287-287.

[5] Salovey, P and Mayer, J. D(1989-90). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3): 185-211.

[6] Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819.

[7] Spendlove, D. (2007). A Conceptualisation of Emotion within Art and Design Education: A Creative, Learning and Product‐Orientated Triadic Schema. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 26(2), 155-166.

[8] Gardenswartz, L., Cherbosque, J., & Rowe, A. (2010). Emotional Intelligence for Managing Results in a Diverse World: The Hard Truth about Soft Skills in the Workplace. Translated by Farzam Habibi, Dorsa, and Tehran.in Persian].

[9] Bradberry, Travis, Graves Jean (1387). What is EQ and why is it More Important than IQ? Translator: Hadi Ebrahimi, Tehran, New Generation Publication. [in Persian].

[10] Chularee, S., & Chularee, T. (2012). Curriculum development of successful intelligence promoting for nursing students. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 6(11), 2893-2897.

[11] Saam A. (2009). Need to develop emotional intelligence in planning engineering education, Journal of Engineering Education, Vol.43, No.11, pp.131-149.

[12] Mo, Y. Y. (2010). Measuring and enhancing the emotional intelligence of built environment students (Doctoral dissertation, © Yi Yi Mo, Loughborough University Institutional Repository.

[13] Ciarrochi, Joseph, John D. Mayer(1388). Applying Emotional Intelligence, Translator to Farsi: Iraj Pad, First Ediction, Tehran, Public Joint Stock Company.

[14] Bond, B. & Manser, R. (2009). Emotional intelligence interventions to increase student success. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

[15] Boyatzis, R. E., Stubbs, E. C., & Taylor, S. N. (2002). Learning cognitive and emotional intelligence competencies through graduate management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 1(2), 150-162.

[16] Parker, J. D., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163-172.

[17] Vandervoort, D. J. (2006). The importance of emotional intelligence in higher education. Current Psychology, 25(1), 4-7.

[18] Freshwater, D., & Stickley, T. (2004). The heart of the art: emotional intelligence in nurse education. Nursing Inquiry, 11(2), 91-98.

[19] Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible? Personality and Individual Differences, 47(1), 36-41.

[20] Sezer,F,S., Erbil, Y and Murat, D. (2016). A Study in the correlation of emotional intelligence and academic achievement in architecture education, International Refereed Journal of Design and Architecture, January / February / March / April 2016 Issue: 07 Winter Spring.

[21] Erbil, Y., Murat, D., & Sezer, F. Ş. (2016). The relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout levels among architecture students. Megaron, 11(4).

[22] Nazidizaji, S., Tomé, A., & Regateiro, F. (2014). Search for design intelligence: A field study on the role of emotional intelligence in architectural design studios. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 3(4), 413-423.

[23] Osborne, L., & Crowther, P. (2011). Butterpaper, sweat & tears: The affective dimension of engaging students during the architectural critique.in Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia, 18-21 September 2011, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC.

[24] Birer, E. (2012). An evaluation of the effect of emotional intelligence on achievement orientation in architectural design education. Gazi University Journal of Science, 25(2), 541-553.

[25] Nazidizaji, s(2012). Relationship between emotional intelligence and design skills in architecture students, Technology of Education. 7(2), 109-120. No. 8. In Persian.

[26] Picard, R. W., Papert, S., Bender, W., Blumberg, B., Breazeal, C., Cavallo, D & Strohecker, C. (2004). Affective learning—a manifesto. BT Technology Journal, 22(4), 253-269.

[27] Dai, D. Y., & Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Beyond cognitivism: Toward an integrated understanding of intellectual functioning and development. In David Yun Dai and Robert J. Sternberg. .(Eds.): Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition: Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development. Routledge,3-38.

[28] De Bono, Edward (1391). Six Thinking Hats, Translator: Mansour Falahati Novin, Second Edition, Tehran-Bam Publication. [in Persian].

[29] Yang -Immordino, M. H., & Damasio, A. (2007). We feel, therefore we learn: The relevance of affective and social neuroscience to education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1(1), 3-10.

[30] Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence.Why it Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam.

[31] Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

[32] Mayer, J. D. (2001). Emotion, intelligence, and emotional intelligence. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition (pp. 410-431). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

[33] Brackett, M. A., Lopes, P. N., Ivcevic, Z., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2004). Integrating emotion and cognition: The role of emotional intelligence. In Dai, D. Y., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.) Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition: Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development. Routledge, 175-194.

[34] Mayer, D. J., Salovey, P., & Caruso, R. D. (2000). Models of emotional intelligenc, In R.J. Sternberg (ed.): Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 396-420), New York combridge university press.

[35] Malhotra, R (2014). Role of emotional intelligence in higher education with emphasis on teachers training, IJSR - International Journal of Sientific Research, Volume : 3 | Issue : 11 | November 2014 • ISSN No 2277 – 8179.

[36] Öhman, A., Flykt, A., & Esteves, F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(3), 466.

[37] Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights From the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-I). Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[38] Goleman, D. (2001). An EI-based theory of performance. In D. Goleman, & C. Cherniss (Eds.): The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations, 1, 27-44. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

[39] Ahmadi, Parviz; Nahid Alamzadeh (1396). Emotional Intelligence, First Edition, Tehran, Office of Cultural Research. [in Persian].

[40] Freedman, J., & Jensen, A. (2008). A case for emotional intelligence in our schools. Six seconds: The Emotional Intelligence Network.

[41] Mangal, S.K. (2007), Essentials of Educational Psychology. PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi.

[42] Cross, N., Dorst, K., & Roozenburg, N. (Eds.). (1992). Research in Design Thinking: Proceedings of a Workshop Meeting Held at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, May 29-31, 1991. Delft University Press.

[43] Lawson, B. (2006). How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified. Routledge.Chicago.

[44] Sharif, Hamid Reza(1388), Architectural design process and critical thinking: the synergy critical thinking and creative thinking, Phd Thesis In Architecture, Ph.D dissertation of Shahid Beheshti University, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Supervisor: Dr. Hamid Nadimi, Dr. Mahmoud Razjouyan. [in Persian].

[45] Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26(3-4), 369-398.

[46] Finn, J. D., & Zimmer, K. S. (2012). Student engagement: what is it? why does it matter? In Sandra L. Christenson, Amy L. Reschly and Cathy Wylie (Eds): Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp. 97-131). Springer US.

[47] Harper, S.R., & Quaye, S.J. (2009). Beyond sameness, with engagement and outcomes for all. In S.J.Quaye & S.R. Harper’s (Eds.): Student Engagement in Higher Education (pp. 1–15). New York: Routledge.

[48] Petrovici, A., & Dobrescu, T. (2014). The role of emotional intelligence in building interpersonal communication skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1405-1410.

[49] Bekerman, Z., & Zembylas, M. (2018). Emotion, emotional intelligence and motivation. In Psychologized Language in Education(pp. 67-78). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

[50] Christie, A., Jordan, P., Troth, A., & Lawrence, S. (2007). Testing the links between emotional intelligence and motivation. Journal of Management & Organization, 13(3), 212-226.

[51] Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(2), 393.

[52] Runco, M. A., & Albert, R. S. (Eds.). (1990). Theories of Creativity (Vol. 990). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

[53] Isen, A., Daubman, K. and Nowicki, G.P, (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1122- 1131.

[54] Facione, P. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction (The Delphi Report).

[55] Simpson Elaine, R., & Mary Courtney, R. (2002). Critical thinking in nursing education: Literature review. International Journal of Nursing Pactice, 8(2), 89-98.

[56] Chiu, Y. C. J. (2006). Exploring student and teacher interactions for critical thinking in face to face and online environments in an EFL course in Taiwan. Faculty of Education Australian Catholic University Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 Australian.(Phd thesis, 2006).

[57] Webster, H. (2007). The analytics of power: Re-presenting the design jury, Journal or Architectural Education, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 21- 27.

[58] Sharif, Hamid Reza (1390). Critical thinking and assessment of the concept of architectural design, Soffeh Journal, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Volume-21, No-53, page, 53. [in Persian].

[59] Salama, A., M, & El-Attar, M., S, T (2006). Student perceptions of the architectural design jury. International Journal of Architectural Research, Vol. 4, No. 2-4, pp. 174-200.

[60] Brackett, M. A., & Katulak, N. A. (2006). Emotional intelligence in the classroom: Skill-based training for teachers and students.in Ciarrochi, J and John D Mayer (Eds):Applying Emotional Intelligence: A Practitioner’s Guide, 1-27.

[61] Oberst, U., Gallifa, J., Farriols, N., & Vilaregut, A. (2009). Training emotional and social competences in higher education: The seminar methodology. Higher Education in Europe, 34(3-4), 523-533.

[62] Short, E., Kinman, G., & Baker, S. (2010). Evaluating the impact of a peer coaching intervention on well-being amongst psychology undergraduate students. International Coaching Psychology Review, 5(1), 27-35.

[63] Yilmaz, M. (2009). The effects of an emotional intelligence skills training program on the consistent anger levels of Turkish university students. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal, 37(4), 565-576.

[64] Pertegal-Felices, M. L., Marcos-Jorquera, D., Gilar-Corbi, R., & Jimeno-Morenilla, A. (2017). Development of emotional skills through interdisciplinary practices integrated into a university curriculum. Education Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 6089859, 12 pages.

[65] Demirbas, O. O., & Demirkan, H. (2007). Learning styles of design students and the relationship of academic performance and gender in design education. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 345-359.

[66] Evans P, (2009). Is there a link between problem-based learning and emotional intelligence? Kathmandu University Medical Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Issue 25, 4-7.

[67] Keller, J. M. (1983), Motivational design of instruction. In C. M.. Reigeluth (Ed.): Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of Their Current Status. 1(1983), 383-434. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence. Erlbaum Associates.

[68] Yazici, Y. E., & Töre, E, (2014). Learning by doing in architectural education: From urban design to architectural design, Yenikapi-Inebey Case Study. Egitim ve Bilim, 39(175).

[69] Bar-On, R. (2007). How important is it to educate people to be emotionally intelligent, and can it be done? (Eds.)Educating People to Be Emotionally Intelligent, Praeger, (1) 10.

[70] Malekian, Mostafa (1389), The collection of applied ethics sessions (Seven sessioons), First Session. @mostafamalekian.

[71] Nadimi, Hamid (1389), Apprenticeship method, a second view, Fine Arts Journal- Architecture and Urban Design, No-44, Page 27-36.

[72] Nadimi, Hamid (1393), An investigation into the integrity of action and theory in architecture education(Not-Published), A new edition of the article: Focuses on the issue of integrating in architecture education, The Letter of Art Journal, No-1, Autumn 1377.