ساخت و اعتبار یابی پرسشنامه‌ی سنجش کیفیت ویژگی‌های کالبدی مؤثر بر فعالیت جسمانی کودکان در حیاط مدرسه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

3 گروه معماری و شهرسازی.دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی.تهران.ایران

چکیده

کمبود فعالیت بدنی یکی از نگرانی‌های عمده در مورد بهداشت عمومی کودکان است. محیط کالبدی و خصوصاً فضای باز یکی از متغیرهایی است که به نظر می‌رسد، می‌تواند سطح فعالیت بدنی کودکان را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد؛ بنابراین هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ساخت ابزاری برای ارزیابی ویژگی‌های کالبدی ارتقادهنده‌ی فعالیت جسمانی کودکان در حیاط مدرسه است. جامعه آماری موردبررسی کودکان 8 تا 11 ساله‌ی شهر تهران بوده‌اند. نمونه‌گیری به‌صورت خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای انجام‌شده است و در حوزه‌های انتخاب‌شده تعداد 120 کودک به‌صورت داوطلبانه در نظرسنجی شرکت نموده‌اند. روایی محتوایی ابزار پژوهش توسط گروهی از متخصصان روانشناسی محیطی، روایی صوری آن با استفاده از نظرسنجی از کودکان و روایی سازۀ آن به‌وسیله تحلیل عامل موردبررسی و تأیید قرار گرفت. بر اساس تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی با چرخش متعامد، 21 سؤال در سه عامل قرار گرفتند که این عوامل مقدار 53.858 درصد از واریانس کلی را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. با بهره‌گیری ازنظر متخصصان، عامل‌های به‌دست‌آمده تحت معانی «جذابیت محیط»، «اجتماع‌پذیری فضا» و «بازی‌سازی محیط» نام‌گذاری شد.
این ابزار می‌تواند پیش از طراحی یک فضای باز در مدرسه، برای سنجش نیازهای کاربران و تشخیص اولویت‌های آنان مورداستفاده قرار گیرد. همچنین یافته‌های این پژوهش که مهم‌ترین متغیرهای کالبدی مؤثر بر فعالیت جسمانی در حیاط مدرسه را معرفی می‌کند، در طراحی فضاها و عناصر کالبدی حیاط مدرسه قابل‌استفاده خواهد بود.

چکیده تصویری

ساخت و اعتبار یابی پرسشنامه‌ی سنجش کیفیت ویژگی‌های کالبدی مؤثر بر فعالیت جسمانی کودکان در حیاط مدرسه

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Construction and validation a scale to measure the quality of the school's yard features Effective on the children physical activity in the school yard

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza Azemati 1
  • Bahram Saleh Sedghpoor 2
  • Zinat Aminifar 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
3 Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University.Tehran.Iran
چکیده [English]

Lack of physical activity is one of the main concerns about children's public health. Physical environment is one of the variables that seems to affect the level of physical activity. The Purpose of this study was to construct and validate competency scale for evaluating physical features promoting the physical activity of children in the school yard. The statistical population of the study was children aged 8 to 11 years old in Tehran. Sampling was done in a multi-stage cluster sampling, and 120 selected children participated voluntarily in the selected areas. The method applied in this research was descriptive-correlation. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by an expert university panel, its face validity was confirmed by a group of children and construct validity was evaluated using the confirmatory factor analysis. Based on exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, 21 items were divided into 3 factors. Total variance of these factors explained% 53.858 variance of physical features. According to experts, the resulting agents were called "environment attraction", "community spaces" and "play development". The findings of this study identify the most important physical variables that affect physical activity in the school yard, so it can be used to design the school yard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Activity
  • School yard
  • Child
  • Open space
  • Measuring Scale

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