فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: جامعه در سطح کلان شامل انواع صنایع و سازمان‌هاست که هر یک به نوبه خود به سمت دانش‌بنیان شدن در حرکت هستند زیرا عدم تطابق با تحولات جهانی به منزله فناست. پس باید سازمان‌ها انعطاف لازم برای تغییر ساختار، اهداف، استراتژی‌ها و چشم‌انداز خود داشته باشند. یکی از ابزارهای مورد استفاده برای ایجاد سازمان دانش‌بنیان، ایجاد فرایند خلق دانش سازمانی برای کسب مزیت رقابتی است. در سطح سازمان دانش کارکنان نقش تعیین کننده داشته و به تبع آن در سطح جامعه دانش افراد و سازمان‌ها مدنظر خواهد بود. پس لازم است مدیریت دانش و به طور خاص خلق دانش در سطح ملی مورد توجه بیشتری قرار گیرد تا دانش خلق شده به صورت نظام‌مند در اختیار همه افراد و سازمان‌ها باشد و کل جامعه از آن منتفع شوند. امروزه کشورها برای توسعه و پیشرفت دانش نیازمند مدیریت منابع دانشی و به طور مشخص خلق دانش و نواوری در حوزه ملی هستند. ادبیات زیادی در حوزه خلق دانش سازمانی وجود دارد و مدل‌های مختلفی بدین منظور توسعه داده شده است؛ اما موضوع خلق دانش تاکنون در سطح سازمان و در مواردی فراسازمانی و در بین زیرمجموعه‌های داخلی یک سازمان اتفاق افتاده است و در حوزه خلق دانش در سطح ملی فعالیت­های اندکی صورت پذیرفته است. آنچه به عنوان نوآوری این مقاله می‌توان به آن اشاره کرد این موضوع است که خلق دانش در سطح ملی با چه فرایندهایی تعریف می‌شود.
روش ها: بدین منظور پس از مرور ادبیات و تحلیل شکاف مطالعاتی، با استفاده از روش دلفی و نظرسنجی از خبرگان به شناسایی فرایندهای ممکن در خلق دانش ملی پرداخته شده است. پنل خبرگان شامل 7 تن از اساتید و متخصصان حوزه مدیریت دانش است که به صورت نظری و تجربی با این مفهوم آشنا هستند.
یافته ها:  نتایج حاصل از تکنیک دلفی نشان می‌دهد که فرایندهای اجتماعی‌سازی، بیرونی‌سازی، ترکیب، فرهنگ‌سازی، کاربرد و درونی‌سازی را می‌توان بعنوان فرایندهای خلق دانش در سطح ملی نام برد. با استفاده از مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری مشخص شد که فرایندهای اجتماعی‌سازی، بیرونی‌سازی و درونی‌سازی در سطح 1، فرایندهای فرهنگ‌سازی و ترکیب در سطح دوم و فرایند کاربرد در سطح سوم مدل قرار دارند.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج حاصل از مدل خلق دانش ملی حاکی از این است که اجتماعی‌سازی، بیرونی‌سازی و درونی‌سازی سنگ بنای الگوی خلق دانش ملی هستند. این بدان معنا است که برای پیاده سازی موفق خلق دانش در سطح ملی، باید پیش از هر چیز روی این موارد سرمایه‌گذاری کرد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از مدل نهایی ترسیمی با رویکرد مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری نیز به وضوح مشاهده می شود، که فرایندهای ترکیب و فرهنگ‌سازی ابعادی مستقل بوده و برنامه‌ریزی برای ترکیب دانش در میان سازمان‌های مختلف و نیز برنامه‌ریزی برای فرهنگ‌سازی در سطح سازمان‌ها برای پذیرش و اعمال دانش جدید در سطح سازمان‌ها مستقل از دیگر فرایندها قابل انجام است.
باید این نکته را یادآوری کرد که شناسایی و سطح‌بندی سازه‌های فرایند خلق دانش ملی، مبتنی بر مبانی نظری موضوع و دریافت آرا و نظرات خبرگان دانشگاهی و تجربی محدودی به سرانجام رسیده است. از این رو، زمینة تحقیقاتی که می تواند در پژوهش های آینده مورد استفاده قرار گیرد، به کارگیری روش تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل مسیر و رویکرد مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری برای آزمون مدل پژوهش پیش رو است تا اعتبار مدل به دست آمده بررسی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Structural Model of National Knowledge Creation Processes: An Interpretative Structural Modeling Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gh. Azari Arani
  • J. Rezaeenour

Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

and organizations, each of which in turn is moving toward becoming a foundational science because incompatibility with global developments leads to failure. So organizations need to have the flexibility to change their structure, goals, strategies, and vision. One of the tools used to create a knowledge-based organization is to create the process of knowledge creation to gain a competitive advantage. As a result creation of the concept of the process of creating national knowledge will is not out of the reach. Today, countries need management of knowledge resources and, in particular, the knowledge creation for knowledge development. There are lots of studies in the field of organizational knowledge creation and so various models have been developed for this purpose. But, the important point is that the creation of knowledge has so far been at the organizational level and in some cases cross-organization and among the subset of a parent organization. The innovation of this article is identifying the process of knowledge creation at the national level.
Methods: For this purpose, based on the literature review and analyzing the research gap, using the Delphi method and a survey of experts, possible processes at the national knowledge creation has been addressed. The panel of experts includes seven professors and experts in the field of knowledge management, who are both theoretically and experimentally familiar with this concept.
Findings: The results of Delphi technique show that the processes of socialization, externalization, combination, culture creation, application, and internalization can be referred to as the processes of national knowledge creation. Using interpretive structural modeling, it was revealed that the processes of socialization, internalization and externalization are at level 1, the processes of culture and combination are in the second level and the process of application is at the third level of the model.
Conclusion: The results of the National Knowledge Creation Model indicate that socialization, externalization, and internalization are the cornerstones of the model. This means that in order to successfully implement the creation of knowledge at the national level, one must first invest in these issues. According to the results obtained it is clearly seen that the processes of combination and culture making are independent dimensions and planning for combining knowledge among different organizations and organizational programming for culture building at organizational level can be done independent of other processes. It should be noted that the identification of the structures of the process of creating the national knowledge process has been achieved based on theoretical foundations and receiving the opinions and of a limited number of academic and experimental experts. Therefore, the scope for future research is the application of factor analysis method, path analysis and structural equation modeling approach to test the research model to examine the validity of the obtained model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Delphi Technique
  • Interpretative Structural Modeling
  • knowledge management
  • National Knowledge Creation
  • Organizational Knowledge Creation

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