بررسی متغیرهای آسایش محیطی با تأکید بر ارتقای کیفیت یادگیری در فضاهای آموزشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

2 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

چکیده

ویژگی‌های کالبدی مدارس ازجمله مباحث مهم در ارتقای کیفیت آموزش و یادگیری است. شرایط نامناسب محیط مدارس و عدم هماهنگی بنا با محیط اطراف لزوم توجه به مسائل آسایش محیطی را دوچندان می­نماید. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بازشناسانی معیارهای آسایش محیطی و ارائه راه­کارهایی برای ارتقای کیفی کالبد مدارس مبتنی بر بهبود یادگیری دانش­آموزان، انجام ‌شده است. روش تحقیق پیمایشی است و جامعة آماری مورد بررسی دو گروه می­باشند. گروه اول متخصصان رشته‌های معماری و روان­شناسی دانشگاه‌های تهران و گروه دوم دبیران و هنرآموزان مشغول به فعالیت در سال تحصیلی 1394-1393 در شهرستان زاهدان هستند. گروه متخصصان مورد مصاحبه قرارگرفته، طبق روش دلفی1 12 نفر بوده­اند و حجم نمونه گروه دوم 310 نفر به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه­ای چندمرحله‌ای تعیین‌شده است. استخراج متغیرهای تأثیرگذار با استفاده از پیشینة تحقیق و مصاحبه با متخصصان صورت گرفته است. در مرحلة دوم پرسشنامه­ای بر پایة متغیرهای به­‌دست­‌آمده تهیه ‌شده و از آن برای سنجش دیدگاه دبیران استفاده گردید. آنچه از تحلیل داده‌های حاصل از پرسشنامه به دست آمد بیانگر این مطلب است که از میان عوامل تأمین‌کنندة آسایش محیطی، به ترتیب اهمیت پنج عامل شامل: استفاده از نور طبیعی، تعبیة پنجرة مناسب، کنترل دما، توجه به کیفیت هوا و کاهش آلودگی­های صوتی از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر بهبود کیفیت یادگیری در فضاهای آموزشی هستند. در تحقیقات پیشین اغلب به‌صورت کیفی به تأثیر نور، دما، تهویه و صوت پرداخته‌ شده است. در برخی موارد نیز تأثیر یکی از عوامل بر یادگیری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است و معیار سنجش نمرات دانش­آموزان یا دیدگاه آن­ها بوده است؛ اما در این پژوهش تأثیر پنج عامل محیطی بر یادگیری به‌صورت کمّی و در قالب متغیر کلی آسایش محیطی مدارس بررسی شده است. در پایان توجه به هرکدام از مؤلفه‌های مؤثر در قالب راه­کارهای معماری فضاهای آموزشی در راستای ارتقای یادگیری کاربران ارائه ‌شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental variables, with emphasis on improving the quality of learning in educational spaces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sadegh Taher Tolou Del 1
  • Zinat Aminifar 2
1 Assistant Professor, Architecture Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU)
2 M.Sc., Architecture Faculty, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU)
چکیده [English]

Physical factors of schools are one of important subjects in improving the quality of students' education and learning. Inappropriate environmental conditions in schools and lack of coordination with the surrounding environment, causes more attention to environmental comfort. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental standards of comfort and presenting strategies for improving the quality of schools framework based on students' learning. The survey research method was used and the studied population are two groups. The first group is expert architectures and psychologist of Tehran Universities; and the second group is chosen from art high schools teachers in Zahedan city in the academic year of 2015-2016. Expert group who were interviewed, including 12 people (By Delfi1 Method) and the second group consisted of 310 subjects. The researchers extracted effective variables through library investigations and interviews with professors and professionals. In the next stage, the obtained variables were analyzed and after confirming the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, it was used to assess the sample’s point of view. The SPSS analysis shows that main factors respectively as: usage of natural light, , reduce noise pollution, temperature control, appropriate windows and air are the most important factors affecting the environmental comfort in learning spaces and they affects the quality of students' learning. In previous researches researchers mainly consider the effect of light, temperature, noise and air condition. In some cases they consider the effect of one of the factors on learning; and it was the criteria for evaluating the students’ score. But in this research the researchers evaluate the effects of five environmental factor on learning.  Finally, the research findings have been formulated as the design principles of schools in order to enhance users’ learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental comfort
  • educational space
  • Learning quality

 

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