فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبانهای خارجی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: ترجمه ماشینی در حال حاضر به طور گسترده در همه جا مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد؛ با این حال، نقش آن به عنوان ابزار یادگیری زبان تأیید نشده است، زیرا نگرانی‌هایی در مورد کیفیت آن وجود دارد. با این حال، اگر خروجی ترجمه ماشینی را با خروجی تولید شده ده سال پیش مقایسه کنیم، شاهد پیشرفت چشمگیری در کیفیت آن بخصوص در بعد واژگانی و دستوری هستیم. ترجمه ماشینی را می‌توان بدین شکل تعریف کرد: فرایندی که از طریق آن و با استفاده از دستگاه‌های الکترونیکی می‌توان ورودی را از زبانی ارایه نمود و خروجی را به زبان دیگر تحویل گرفت. هنگامی‌که ترجمه ماشینی روی گوشی‌های هوشمند در دسترس همگان قرار گرفت به دلیل مزایایی همچون رایگان بودن و سهولت دسترسی، مقبولیتی همگانی کسب نمود.
در حوزه تعلیم و تعلم، هر روزه یادگیرندگان زیادی از این فناوری برای اهداف مختلف شخصی و همچنین علمی استفاده می‌کنند. این اهداف به طور عمده عبارتند از درک متنی که به زبان مادری نوشته نشده است و یا ترجمه متون مختلف از زبانهای مختلف به زبانهای دیگر و تحویل آن بعنوان تکالیف درسی به مدرسان. ترجمه ماشینی با تولید نسخه‌ای نه چندان کامل می‌تواند به یادگیرندگان کمک کند درک مختصری از متنی که از زبان دیگری به غیر از زبان مادری نگاشته شده است پیدا کنند
هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر ترجمه ماشینی روی درک مطلب دانشجویان است.
روش‌ها: برای رسیدن به این هدف، سه نوع متن با سطوح مختلف دشواری انتخاب شد. این متون یک بار توسط مترجم انسانی و یک بار با ترجمه ماشینی (مترجم گوگل) ترجمه شد. در نهایت شش متن بدست آمد. خروجی ترجمه ماشینی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته و تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: سپس دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد که بیشتر از ترجمه ماشینی برای درک مطالب درسی خود استفاده می‌کنند  به صورت تصادفی به شش گروه تقسیم شدند و هر گروه یکی از این متون را خوانده و به سوالات چهار جوابی درک مطلب در انتهای متن پاسخ دادند.  آزمون تی روی داده‌ها انجام شد و مشخص گردید که از سه نوع متن، دو نوع متن علیرغم داشتن برخی مشکلات واژگانی و دستوری توانست با ترجمه انسانی رقابت کند.
نتیجه‌گیری: داده‌ها نشان داد کیفیت ترجمه ماشینی در حال بهبود است و هم اکنون به آن درجه از کیفیت رسیده است که از آن بتوان بعنوان ابزاری در محیط‌های آموزشی استفاده نمود. راهکارهایی نیز در خصوص استفاده بهینه از این فناوری در کلاس درس ارایه گردیده است.
 با توجه به اینکه نوع متن تاثیر بسیار زیادی در کیفیت ترجمه ماشینی دارد و متون علمی بسیار خوب و متون ادبی بسیار بد ترجمه ماشینی می‌شوند این نکته نیز بایستی در تعمیم دادن نتایج این پژوهش مد نظر قرار گیرد. هر سه متن ترجمه شده توسط گوکل توانست با متن ترجمه شده انسانی از دیدگاه درک مطلب برابری نماید لیکن تعداد جملات مجهول در این متن از دو متن دیگر بیشتر بود که انتظار میرفت در درک مطلب دانشجویان تاثیر منفی بگذارد که چنین چیزی مشاهده نشد. مسئله جنسیت نیز می تواند مورد بررسی قرار گیرد تا بدانیم آیا ارتباطی بین جنسیت و نوع واکنش به ترجمه ماشینی وجود دارد یا خیر

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Machine translation output assessment and its impact on reading comprehension

نویسنده [English]

  • V.R. Mirzaeian

ELT Department, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Machine translation is now widely used everywhere; However, its role as a language learning tool has not been confirmed, as there are concerns about its quality. However, if we compare the machine translation output with the output produced ten years ago, we see a significant improvement in its quality, especially in terms of vocabulary and grammar. Machine translation can be defined as: the process by which, using electronic devices, input can be provided from one language and output delivered in another language. When machine translation became available on smartphones, it gained universal acceptance because of its benefits such as free and easy access. In the field of education, many learners use this technology every day for various personal as well as academic purposes. These goals mainly include understanding a text that is not written in the native language or translating different texts from different languages into other languages and delivering it as homework. Machine translation can help learners gain a quick understanding of a text written in a language other than their mother tongue by producing an incomplete version. The aim of this research was to assess the quality of machine translation and its impact on students’ reading comprehension.
Method and Materials: Three types of texts were selected with varying levels of difficulty. These texts were translated once by a human translator and once by machine translation (Google Translator). Finally, six texts were obtained. The output of machine translation was evaluated and analyzed. Postgraduate students who happened to use machine translation more frequently were then randomly divided into six groups, each group reading one of these texts and answering multiple choice comprehension questions at the end of the text. The T-test was performed on the data and it was found that from the three types of texts, the two types of texts, despite having some lexical and grammatical problems, were able to compete with human translation.
Findings: The data showed that the quality of machine translation is improving and has now reached a degree of quality that can be used as a tool in educational environments. Some guidelines were also given on how to use this technology in the classroom.
Conclusion: This study attracts attention of language educators to MT and its use in language teaching. It suggests that language educators should be trained to use this tool to improve language learning among students. Considering that the type of text has a great impact on the quality of machine translation and very good scientific texts and very bad literary texts are machine translated, this point should also be considered in generalizing the results of this research. All three texts translated by Google were able to match the human translated text in terms of comprehension, but the number of unknown sentences in this text was more than the other two texts, which were expected to have a negative effect on students' comprehension, which was not observed. The issue of gender can also be examined to see if there is a relationship between gender and the type of reaction to machine translation or not

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • machine translation
  • Assessment
  • Reading comprehension

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