فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: از مسائل مهم و تأثیرگذار موردنظرِ پژوهش، شناخت مؤلفه‌های محیط کالبدی مدارس است که فرآیند یادگیری را می‌تواند توسط محیط فیزیکی مدرسه تحت تأثیر قرار گیرد. توجه به ویژگی‌های معماری بنای مدارس در کنار دیگر ویژگی‌های آن می‌توان به ایجاد مدارسی با دانش‌آموزان موفق دست یافت. آنچه امروزه به‌صورت متداول به‌عنوان مدل کالبدی مدرسه شناخته می‌شود، کلاس‌های درسی هستند که به‌صورت پیوسته از طریق راهرو به هم متصل شده‌اند و این الگوی ساخت از مدارس به‌صورت تیپ همچنان ادامه دارد. اگر فضای یادگیری، اعم از کلاس یا مدرسه به‌گونه‌ای طراحی‌شده باشد که محورِ فعالیت در آن دانش‌آموزان باشند، زمینه ی بسیار مطلوبی جهت افزایش علاقه‌مندی دانش‌آموزان به محیط مدرسه فراهم می‌شود. در شیوه یادگیری مشارکتی که هدف تحقیق است، دانش‌آموزان در چنین محیطی قرار گرفته و به فعالیت مشارکتی می‌پردازند. پژوهش حاضر، باهدف شناسایی مؤلفه‌های محیط‌کالبدی مدارس، با رویکرد یادگیری مشارکتی صورت گرفته است.
روش‌ها: نوع تحقیق در این پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن، توصیفی- تحلیلی از نوع میدانی است. جامعه آماری مطالعه را دانش‌آموزان پسر دوره اول متوسطه در شهر تبریز تشکیل می­دهد که 356 نفر به روش تصادفی از بین چهار مدرسه در نقاط مختلف شهر انتخاب شدند. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون t تک نمونه‌ای و خی‌دو مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفتند.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌ها نشان داد میزان رضایت از محیط کالبدی در هر چهار مدرسه بررسی‌شده پایین و تمایل به وجود محیط‌هایی که دانش‌آموزان بتوانند به‌طور مشارکتی در آن فرا گرفته و به فعالیت بپردازند بسیار بالا بوده است. همچنین استنباط می­گردد، هرچه محیط کالبدی مدرسه از شرایط مناسب و مطلوبی جهت یادگیری مشارکتی برخوردار باشد، میزان رضایت و علاقه به یادگیری در دانش‌آموزان افزایش‌یافته و درنهایت آموزش‌وپرورش به‌درستی تحقق می‌یابد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان دادند، عناصر تشکیل‌دهنده محیط کالبدی مدارس نظیر مبلمان، فضای سبز، رنگ، هندسه و فضا یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل در یادگیری به‌خصوص یادگیری و فعالیت مشارکتی در مدارس است که می‌تواند تأثیر قابل‌توجهی بر میزان رضایت و حضور باعلاقه دانش­آموزان در مدرسه داشته باشد. از پیشنهادهای پژوهش حاضر، می‌توان به طراحی فضاهای درخور و کارا با توجه به اصول زیبایی‌شناختی و روانشناسی و همچنین استفاده از روش یادگیری مشارکتی جهت جایگزینی در تدریس سخنرانی محور اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the components of school physical environment with participatory learning approach (Case study: Boys’ middle schools of Tabriz)

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Abbaszadeh Diz 1
  • H. Rashid Kolvir 1
  • A. Rezaeisharif 2

1 Department of Architecture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Educational Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: One of the important and influential issues of research is recognizing the components of the physical environment of schools as learning process can be influenced by the physical environment of the school. Paying attention to the architectural features of school buildings, among other features, can be achieved by creating schools with successful students. What is commonly known today as the physical model of the school are the classrooms that are continuously connected through the corridor, and this pattern of building schools as a pattern continues. If the learning environment, whether classroom or school, is designed in such a way that students are the center of activity, it provides a very good ground for increasing students' interest in the school environment. In the collaborative learning method that is the goal of the research, students are placed in such an environment and engage in collaborative activity. The purpose of this study was to identify the physical environment components of schools with a participatory learning approach.
Method and Materials: This applied research is of descriptive-analytical type. The statistical population of the study was male middle school students in Tabriz. 356 male middle school students were randomly selected from four schools in different parts of the city. The data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and chi-square test.
Findings: The results showed that the satisfaction of the physical environment in all four studied schools was low and the tendency for the environments in which the students could participate was very high. It can be deduced that the more the physical environment of the school has favorable conditions for participatory learning, the higher the level of satisfaction and interest in learning in students are, and also education and training take place properly.
Conclusion: The results showed that the elements of physical environment such as furniture, green space, color, and space geometry are among the most important factors in learning, especially learning and cooperative activity in schools, which can have a significant effect on students’ satisfaction and their presence with enthusiasm at school. One of the suggestions of the present study is to design suitable and efficient spaces according to the aesthetic and psychological principles as well as the use of collaborative learning method for lecture-based teaching.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • physical environment
  • participatory learning
  • school
  • male students
  • middle school

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