فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم‌تربیتی، دانشکده علوم‌تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 گروه تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشکده علوم‌تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 گروه نرم‌افزار، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: ماهیت آموزش عالی به علت پیشرفت  فاوا در حال تحول بوده و این فناوری­ها بر روی رسالت دانشگاه­ها در ابعاد آموزش و پژوهش تاثیر به­سزایی گذاشته است. فاوا واسطه­ای­ست که امکان بیان طیف گسترده­­ای از اطلاعات، اندیشه­ها، مفاهیم و پیام­ها را فراهم می­کند. این پدیده با تمام ویژگی­ها و کاربردهایی که دارد، عبارت است از گردآوری، سازمان­دهی، ذخیره و نشر اطلاعات اعم از صوت، تصویر، متن یا عدد که با استفاده از ابزارهای رایانه­ای و مخابراتی صورت پذیرد. فاوا به عنوان رویکردی نوین، مکمل آموزش است نه جایگزین آن، هدف از توسعه آن، بهبود و کارآمدتر ساختن منابع آموزش و پرورش، به ویژه منابع انسانی است. مطالعات متعددی در گذشته اثرات مثبت فاوا را در تدریس نشان داده‌اند. گسترش فناوری اطلاعات و استفاده از ابزارها و مفاهیم نوین، زمینه بسط اطلاعات و دسترسی آسان و کم هزینه را برای فراگیران اعم از دانش­آموزان، دانشجویان و معلمان به روش برخط فراهم کرده و تبادل سریع اطلاعات و تعاملات فرهنگی را میسر می­سازد. مؤسسات آموزش عالی نیز به طور فزاینده­ای نسبت به استفاده از فاوابه عنوان ابزاری برای یاددهی یادگیری، همکاری­های علمی، ارتباطات علمی، توسعه و توانمندی اعضای هیئت علمی برنامه­ریزی کرده و در عمل، سعی بر آن دارند که فاوا را برای تحقق اهداف به کار ببرند. در مواجه با نیاز جهانی کاربرد فاوا به استادان در جایگزین نمودن روش‌های آموزش سنتی با ابزار و امکانات آموزش و یادگیری مبتنی بر فناوری کمک خواهند کرد. اما امروزه این امر برای آموزش خیلی مهم­تر از گذشته است، زیرا ابزارهای جدید و استفاده از فاوا در روش­های آموزشی مؤثرند. به نظر می­رسد فاوا تاثیر شگرفی بر فرایند یادگیری در آموزش عالی از طریق ارائه فرصت­های جدید و جالبی برای اساتید و دانشجویان داشته باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر فراتحلیل پژوهش­های انجام شده در زمینه تأثیر استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر عملکرد آموزشی و پژوهشی استادان، جهت برآورد اندازه اثر واقعی فاوا بر عملکرد آموزشی و پژوهشی استادان بود.
روش‌ها‌: کلیه پژوهش­های انجام شده، تا پایان سال 1396 در زمینه رابطه­ی میزان استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات با عملکرد آموزشی و پژوهشی اعضای هیأت علمی در ایران جامعه پژوهشی می­باشد. با بررسی همه پژوهش­های انجام شده تعداد 6 پژوهش درباره اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات با عملکرد آموزشی استادان و همچنین تعداد 5 پژوهش درباره اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات با عملکرد پژوهشی استادان که دارای ویژگی­های مناسب برای ورود به فراتحلیل بودند، انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش، چک لیست گزینش پژوهش­ها از نظر فنی و روش­شناختی بود . مدل فراتحلیل ترجیحی در این پژوهش رویکرد ترکیب نتایج هانتر و اشمیت بود. برای تفسیر نتایج نیز از رویکرد کوهن استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: اندازه اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر عملکرد آموزشی استادان نیز 413/0 می­باشد که برمبنای شاخص­های تفسیری، بالاتر از متوسط است. همچنین اندازه اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر عملکرد پژوهشی استادان نیز 315/0 می­باشد که برمبنای شاخص­های تفسیری، متوسط است.
نتیجه‌گیری: کاربرد فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر عملکرد آموزشی و پژوهشی استادان به طور معناداری تأثیر دارد. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده و کمیت و کیفیت پژوهش­های موجود، پیشنهاد می­شود تحقیقات این دو حوزه در سطح بالاتری از لحاظ کیفی و رعایت قواعد تدوین مقاله و اجرای پژوهش انجام شود. همچنین برای رسیدن به یک نتیجه قابل اعتماد در مرحله اول از آمار پارامتریک درطرح خود استفاده کنند و روش­های آماری قوی همراه با نمونه متناسب و روش های نمونه­گیری مناسب با جامعه استفاده گردد

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Meta-analysis of the impact of the use of information and communication technology On Educational and Research Performance of Faculty Members of Universities

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Amini 1
  • A.R. Nasr 1
  • B.E. Zamani 2
  • B. Tork Ladani 3

1 Educational Sciences Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Educational Technology Department, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Software Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The nature of higher education is evolving due to the advancement of ICT while these technologies have had a significant impact on the mission of universities in education and research directions. ICT is a mdeiator that enables the expression of a wide range of information, ideas, concepts and messages. This phenomenon, with all its features and applications, is the collection, organization, storage and dissemination of information, including audio, video, text or number, using computer and telecommunications tools. ICT as a new approach is complementary to education, not its alternative, and its the purpose of development is to improve and make education resources more efficient in general and human resources in particular. Numerous studies in the past have shown the positive effects of ICT in teaching. The development of information technology and the use of new tools and concepts provide the basis for the expansion of information and easy and low-cost access for learners, including school and unviersity students and teachers in the online way and enable the rapid exchange of information and cultural interactions. Higher education institutions are increasingly planning to use ICT as a tool for teaching-learning, scientific collaboration, scientific communication, development, and faculty empowerment, and in practice, are trying to use ICT to achieve goals. In facing the global need, ICT use help educators replace traditional teaching methods with technology-based teaching and learning tools and facilities. But today this is much more important for education than in the past, because new tools and the use of ICT are effective in instructional methods. ICT seems to have a tremendous impact on the learning process in higher education by providing new and exciting opportunities for faculty and students. The present study aims to Meta-analyze the previous studies on the effect of ICT on the faculty members' educational and research performance to show the real value 0f ICT.
Method and Materials:The research sample consists of all previous studies done on the effect of ICT till 2018 in Iran. The purposeful sampling was done for selection of 6 studies on the effect of ICT on the faculty members' educational performance and 5 appropriate studies regarding the impact of ICT on their research performance to enter the meta-analysis. The isntrument for data gathering includes a checklist of choosing studies technically and methodologically. The meta-analysis method consists of the mixed approach of Hunter and Smith and Cohen for interpretation of results.
Findings: The findings confirmed that ICT has a significant effect on faculty members' educational and research performance. The effect size was of ICT on the faculty members' educational performance was 0.413. Also, the effect size of ICT on the faculty members' research performance was 0.315.
Conclusion: Vsing ICT has significant effect on educationl and research per formance of faculty members. Considering the obtained results and the quantity and quality of existing research studies, it is suggested that the researches of these two fields be carried out at a higher level in terms of quality and observance of the rules of academic paper writing and conducting research. Also, to achieve a reliable result in the first stage, use parametric statistics in their design and use strong statistical methods with appropriate sample and appropriate sampling methods in accordance with the population

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meta-analysis
  • Technology
  • Educational
  • research
  • performance

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