طراحی چهارچوبی برای آموزش مهارت فنی و حرفه‌ای به دانش‌آموزان متوسطه دوم شاخه نظری: یک مطالعه کیفی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 سازمان پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزشی

2 گروه علوم انسانی

چکیده

حرفه‌ای سازی دوره متوسطه برای دستیابی به هدف نهایی بهبود تناسب اقتصادی آموزش و پرورش با تحولات بازار کار به یک موضوع  چالش­برانگیز در ایران همانند جوامع دیگر تبدیل شده است. در این راستا، مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارائه چهارچوب برنامه درسی آموزش مهارت فنی و حرفه‌ای به دانش آموزان شاخه نظری انجام شده است. به این منظور، با رویکردی کیفی و با روش بررسی اسنادی پیشینه نظری  و تجارب عملی مرتبط با برنامه‌های­ آموزش فنی و حرفه­ای، اسناد بالا دستی و الگوهای نظری و عملی موجود مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و چهارچوبی متشکل از   11مؤلفه (منطق و چرایی؛ اصول حاکم بر برنامه؛ رویکرد تربیتی برنامه؛ اهداف؛ قلمرو و جهت‌گیری محتوا؛ روش‌های آموزشی- تربیتی(فعالیت‌های یادگیری)؛ گروه‌بندی دانش‌آموزان؛ مواد و منابع یادگیری؛ ارزشیابی پیشرفت تحصیلی ؛ منابع و امکانات و استلزامات برنامه (الزامات اجرایی) تدوین شد. سپس، از طریق تشکیل گروه کانونی با ذینفعان مختلف اعتبار چارچوب استخراج شده ارزیابی و تایید گردید. در مجموع، این چهارچوب به عنوان مبنایی برای برنامه‌ریزی و اقدام برای آموزش مهارت فنی و حرفه‌ای به دانش آموزان شاخه نظری پیشنهاد می‌شود.

چکیده تصویری

طراحی چهارچوبی برای آموزش مهارت فنی و حرفه‌ای به دانش‌آموزان متوسطه دوم شاخه نظری: یک مطالعه کیفی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a framework for training vocational and technical skill to students at second-level secondary education in academic branch: A qualitative study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahad Naveedy 1
  • Seyed Ali Khaleghinezhad 1
  • Aliasgar Khallaghi 2
1 Organization for Research and Educational Planing
2 Department of Human sciences, Shaheed Rajaee University
چکیده [English]

The vocationalization of secondary education has become a problematic issue in Iran like other societies for achieving the main goal in terms of adapting the education system to the labor market changes. The present study intends to provide a framework for training vocational and technical skill to second-level secondary students in academic branch. Regarding this, the qualitative research approach using documentary method was applied to examine the educational and strategic national documents, existing literature associated with vocational and technical education, and practical and theoretical frameworks. Then, the main framework including 11 components such as the logic and reason of program, the dominant principals of program, educational approach program, goals, content scope and orientation, educational methods, students grouping, learning resources and materials, the evaluation of academic achievement, the prerequisite resources and facilities, and program requirements has been explored. In the next step, validating the extracted framework was examined by different stakeholders, in the focus group meetings, has been confirmed. In sum, this framework will be suggested as a foundation for planning and conducting the training a vocational and technical skill to Iranian second-level secondary students in academic branch.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vocational and Technical Education
  • Guided Framework
  • National curriculum
  • Secondary Education
  • Academic Branch

[1]The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2014). Reviews of Vocational Education and Training - Learning for Jobs. Retrieved form http: // www.oecd. org/education/innovation-education/ learning for jobs. htm

 

[2].Tang, N., & Shi, W. (2017). Youth employment and Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in China. In Pilz, M. (Ed.) Vocational Education and Training in Times of Economic Crisis (pp. 269-283). US: Springer International Publishing.

 

[3].Mukhamadeyeva, R. M., Mukhamadeyev, T. M., & Mukhamadeyeva, I. A. (2015). Structural and logical approach to the introduction of dual training in vocational and technical education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(10), 332-248

 

[4].Virolainen, M., & Stenström, M, L. (2014). Finnish vocational education and training in comparison: Strengths and weaknesses. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 1(2), 81-106.

 

[5].Shah, I. H., Rahman, F., Ajmal, M., & Hamidullah, H. M. (2011). Situation analysis of technical education and vocational training: A case study from Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(1), 980-984.

 

[6].Laglo, J., & Maclean R., (2005). Vocationalised secondary education. revisited. Netherlands: Springer.

 

[7].Bishop, J. H., & Mane, F. (2005).   Economic returns to vocational courses in US high schools. In J. Lauglo and R. Maclean (Eds.) Vocationalisation of secondary education revisited (pp. 329–362). Netherlands: Springer.  

 

[8]. Billetoft, J., & Projectos, A. (2005). Technical and vocational education and training in Mozambique: Better than its reputation. In J. Lauglo, J. and R. Maclean (Eds.) Vocationalisation of secondary education revisited (pp. 309-328). Netherlands: Springer.

 

[9].The World Bank. (2011). Vocational Education & Training: retrieved from: http://web.worldbank. Org/WBSITE /EXTERNAL /TOPICS EXTEDUCATION /0,, contentMDK: 20223869~ menuPK: 624454~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282386,00.html

 

[10].Haolader, F. A., Foysol, K. M., & Clement, C. K. (2017). Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh–Systems, curricula, and transition pathways. In M. Pilz (Ed.) Vocational Education and Training in times of economic crisis (pp. 201-227). US: Springer International Publishing.

 

[11].Hanushek, E., Woessmann, L., Zhang, L. (2011) General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle, CESifo working paper: Economics of Education, 3(6), 14-18.

 

[12].Wilson, D. N. (2005). Promise and Performance in Vocationalised secondary education: Has the baby been thrown out with the bath water? In J. Lauglo and R. Maclean (Eds.) Vocationalisation of secondary education revisited (pp. 71-90). Netherlands: Springer.

 

[13].Namuddu, K., Jain, N., & Adamson, B. (2017). Systemic Curricular Change. In Jayaram, S., & Engmann, M.(Eds.) Bridging the skills gap (pp. 55-75). Netherlands: Springer International Publishing.

 

[14]. Choi, Y. (2013) Expanding TVET at the secondary education level. Asia-Pacific education system review series (UNESCO Bangkok) no. 7, UNESCO Bangkok, Bangkok. Retrieved from  http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002262/226220e.pdf>.

 

 [15]. Marashi, A. A. (1989). Scientific report on the experimental schools in Iran. Tehran: The Centre of research Council of Education Ministry. [In Persian].

 

 [16]. Abotrabian, M. R. (1986). Education through Kad program:As it is and as it should be. Tehran: The Centre of Cooperative Council of Country Vocational and Technical Education. . [In Persian] 

 

[17]. Ministry of Education. (2010). Foundational Evolution Document. Tehran: The Higher Council of Education. [In Persian]

 

[18]. Fifth five-year development Plan of the Islamic republic of Iran. (2012). Tehran: Organization for Management and planning. [In Persian]

 

 [19]. Zahra, G. (1999). The process of evolution and shaping the curriculum of high school in Iran. Journal of Education, 15(1), 59-97. [In Persian]

 

[20]. The Center of Foundational Change in Education System. (1989).  The Framework of Education System of Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Education. [In Persian]

 

[21].Ministry of Education. National Curriculum of Islamic Republic of Iran. (2011). Tehran: The Higher Council of Education. [In Persian]

 

 [22].Akker, J. van den (2003). Curriculum perspectives: An introduction. In J. van den Akker, W. Kuiper and U. Hameyer (Eds.), Curriculum landscapes and trends (pp. 1-10). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers

 

[23]. Miller, M. D. (1996). Philosophy: The conceptual framework for designing a system of teacher education. In N. K Hartley and T. L.  Wentling (Eds.), Beyond tradition: Preparing the teachers of tomorrow’s workforce (pp. 53-72). Columbia, MO: University Council for Vocational Education

 

[24].Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. UK: Sage.

 

[25].Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Procedures and techniques for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

 

[26].Kitzinger, J. (1995). Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 311(7000), 299.

 

[27].Gunawan, J. (2015). Ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research. Belitung Nursing Journal, 1(1), 10-11.

 

 [28]. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of qualitative research:  grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

 

[29]. Levin, Henry, M. (1980). Workplace democracy and educational planning. In M. Carnoy, H. Levin  and K.  King  Education, work, and employment.  Paris: UNESCO.

 

[30]. Gregson, J. (2010). A conceptual framework for green career and technical education: Sustainability and the development of a green-collar workforce. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 2(1), 123-137.

 

[31]. Miller, M. D., & Gregson, J. A. (1999). A philosophic view for seeing the past of vocational education and envisioning the future of workforce education: Pragmatism revisited.In Pautler Jr, A. J.(Ed.) Workforce education: Issues for the new century (pp. 21-34). Stanford, Calif.

 

[32]. Rojewski, J. W. (2009). A conceptual framework for technical and vocational education and training. In R. Maclean and D. Wilson (Eds.) International handbook of education for the changing world of work (pp. 19-39). Dordrecht: Springer.

 

[33]. Miller, M. D. (1985). Principles and a philosophy for vocational education, The Ohio State University. US: The National Center for Research in Vocational Education

 

[34].Terada, M. (2008). The Development and Study of Pre-Vocational Education in Japan. In F. Rauner and R. Maclean (Eds.) Handbook of technical and vocational education and training research (pp. 322-327). Dordrecht: Springer.

 

[35].The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2003) Pre-vocational education. Retrieved from:  https://stats.oecd. org/ glossary /detail. asp?ID=5410. 

 

[36].Schilling, J. F., & Koetting, J. R. (2010). Underpinnings of competency-based education. Athletic Training Education Journal, 5(4), 165-169.

 

[37].Onstenk, J. (2008). Pre-vocational education in the Netherlands. In F. Rauner and R. Maclean (Eds.) Handbook of technical and vocational education and training research (pp. 327-330). Dordrecht: Springer

 

[38].Clarke, K., & Polesel, J. (2013). Strong on retention, weak on outcomes: the impact of vocational education and training in schools. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 259-273.

 

[39].Lawal, A. W. (2014).Technical and vocational education, a tool for national development in Nigeria. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 14, 53-59.

 

 [40].Mahasneh, O. M. (2014). Problems faced by pre-vocational education curricula teachers in Jordan. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 3(3), 149-152.

[41].Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231

 

[42].Guoqing, X. (2009).  Working knowledge: New view of content development of vocational curriculum. Research in Educational Development, 11(3), 0-20.

 

[43].Neubert, J., Lans, T., Mustafic, M., Greiff, S., & Ederer, P. (2017). Complex problem-solving in a changing world: Bridging domain-specific and transversal competence demands in vocational education. In  M. Mulder and J. Winterton (Eds.) Competence-based Education (pp. 953-969). US: Springer

 

[44]Finch, C, R., & John R. C. (1999). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education. planning, content, and implementation. (Trans. Fathi, K., & Khaleghi, A.), Tehran, Madraseh publication.

 

[45]Iranian Organization of Vocational and Technical Education. (2016). Introducing the Vocational and Technical Education Organization. Retrieved from: http://skill. irantvto. r/index.aspx?fkeyid =&siteid =91&pageid=274.