عنوان مقاله [English]
TThe research has been conducted in an attempt to examine the effect of Flipped classroom on self-directed learning in in English language classes. The participants were girls studying in tenth grade in the city of Kalybar during the school year 1395-1396. The research method was semi experimental with pre-test and post-test with a control group. Participants in the study were 30 students who were selected by convenience sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. For collecting information, a questionnaire of self-directed learning was used in students' learning with a reliability of 0.82 for the whole test and with face and content validity approved by the experts. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software. The results of covariance analysis showed that Flipped Classroom has been able to influence the self-directed variable (with the exception of self-management) in learning with the help of covariate (pre-test) (P <0.05). Also, the mean scores of students at the pre and post-test in the experimental group were significantly different. the mean scores of self-directed learning for students trained through Flipped Classroom were higher.
 Mir Darikivand, F., Haji Hussein Nazhad, G., Ali Asgari, M., & Adib Manesh, A. (2016). The effect of active teaching method academic prefomance in science: The case of 3rd grade junior high school students in Andimeshk. Reaearch in Curriculum Planning, 12(20), 133-144. [in Persian[
 Heydari,T., Kariman, N., Heydari, Z., & Amir Frahani, L. (2009). Comparison of lecture method with lecture and feedback in traditional way on learning and teaching quality. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences, 12(4), 34-43.[In Persian]
 Jonathan, B; Aaron, S. (2016). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day (Trans. F. W. Ataran, M., Farahmand khangah, M.) Tehran: Meraat.(original work published (2012). [In Persian]
 Radnitzer, K. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and self-directed learning readiness among college students articipating in a leadership development Program (Unpublished doctoral dissertations). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
 Hendry, G.D., & Ginns, P. ( 2010). Readiness for selfdirected learning: Validation of a New Scale with Medical Students. Med Teach,13(10), 918-920.
 Fisher, M., King, J., & Tague, G. (2001). Development of a self-directed learning readiness scale for nursing education. Nurse Educ Today, 21(7), 516-525.
 Nadi, M., Gardanshekan, M., & Golparvar, M. (2011). The effect of critical thinking, problem solving and metacognition on self-learner learning in students. Quarterly Journal of Planning Curriculum, 8(2), 53-61. [in persian]
 Johnson, G. B. (2013). Student perception of the flipped classroom (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of British Colombia, Canada.
 Bell, M. R. (2015). An investigation of the impact of a flipped classroom instructional approach on high school students’ content knowledge and attitudes toward the learning environment (Unpublished master’s thesis), UK,Brigham Young University.
 Tétreault, P. L.(2013). The Flipped Classroom: Cultivating Student Engagement (Unpublished master’s thesis. Canad, University of Victoria.
 Noruzi, D., Ahmadzadeh, A., & Agaberati, N. (2011). The effect of multi-media teaching on learning and retention of mathematics in autism male learners. The Psychology of Exceptional People Quarterly, 1(4), 24-51.[in persian]
 Chen CH. M., & Hsu SH.H. (2008). Personalized mobile learning system for supportive effective English learning, Educational Technology and Society, 11(3), 153-180.
 Sarani, H., & Aayati, M.(2014). The impact of mobile phone using (SMS) on learning English vocabulary and the students’ attitude. Research in Curriculum Planning, 11(13), 48-60. [in persian]
 The first English conference in Hamadan, Editorials the Resalat Newspaper, No. 5954, 2006.
 Kavyani, E., Mostafai, Seyyed M. R., & Khakreh, F. (2015). The study of the effect of flipped classroom approach on academic achievement, academic self-regulation, group interaction and educationalmotivationof students. Research in Education, 1(5), 52-69. [in persian]
 Esmaeilifar, M. S., Tabatabaee Yazdi, M., & Azari Kiyomars, N .(2015). The effect of flipped classroom approach and school seeling of elementary students. Paper presented at the National Conference on Arts Studies and Humanities Research, Tehran. [in persian]
 Donald, R. W., David, M. M., & Amanda, G. M. (2016). Flippin’ Fluid Mechanics - Comparison using two groups. Advances in Engineering Education. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology.
 Maria, E., & Mohammad, J. (2016). Active learning and flipped classroom, hand in hand approach to improve students learning in human anatomy and physiology. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(4), 222- 231.
 KyaHosseini, Z., & Dousti, W .( 2015). Comparison of the effect offlipped class method and the common method of teaching basic students in elementary in mathematics. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran, Iran. [in persian]
 MobSar maleki, S., Rastegarpour; H., & Kyan, K.(2015). How the effect of the flipped learning method on learning the work and technology lessons. Paper presented at the National Conference on Psychology of Social Sciences and Education, Mazandaran, the Scientific Research Institute of Koma Alam Avaran Danesh. [in persian]
 Nadi, M. Ali., & Sajjadyan, I. (2011). Validity validation scale for self-directed learning in learning for medical and dental students, Iranian Journal of Medical Education,11(2),467-478. [in persian]
 Shokar, G. S., Shokar, N. K.,Romero, C. M., & Bulik, R. J. (2002). Self-directed learning: looking at outcomes with medical students. Medical student Education. Journal abbreviation, 34(3), 197-200.
 Sultan Arabshahi, S. K ., & Na'imi, L. (2012). Examine the status of self-directed learning skills of medical students. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 20(113),10-19. [in persian]