فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: توسعه نگرش مثبت نسبت به موضوع مورد مطالعه، یکی از اهداف آموزشی شایع امروز است. معلمان و همچنین والدین معتقدند که نگرش دانش­آموز نسبت به موضوع درسی بر موفقیت دانش­آموز در مدرسه تأثیر می گذارد. ادراکات دانش‌آموزان متوسطه در مورد یادگیری فناوری ممکن است تصمیم آنها را برای تحصیل در رشته دانشگاهی و کار در زمینه علم، فناوری، مهندسی و ریاضی، که به‌عنوان پایه توسعه اقتصادی کشور­های پیشرفته در نظر گرفته­شده، تحت تأثیر قرار­دهد. طی دهه­های گذشته، بین مهارت­های علمی و فنی ارائه شده از سوی مدارس و تقاضای اقتصادی در این زمینه، شکاف رو به­رشدی دیده­شده­است، تعداد فراگیران و افراد آموزش دیده در زمینه فناوری و علم، در بعضی موارد کاهش یافته است. از آنجا­که اهداف اصلی حوزة تربیت و یادگیری برنامه درسی کار و فناوری در سند تحول بنیادین آموزش پرورش برای دورة اول متوسطه، کســب شایستگی­ها و نگرش مثبت به فناوری و کارآفرینی است، هدف این مطالعه بررسی رابطه نگرش به درس کار و فناوری با نگرش فناورانه و کارآفرینی دانش‌آموزان متوسطه منطقه یک تبریز در سال تحصیلی 1398-1397 است.
 
 روش‌ها: این مطالعه از نوع همبستگی با استفاده از روش مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش حداقل مربعات انجام می­شود. این روش الگو را در دو مرحله آزمایش می‌کند که شامل آزمون اندازه‌گیری و الگوی ساختاری است. مدل اندازه‌گیری، اعتبار و روایی ابزارهای اندازه‌گیری و ساختارهای تحقیق را بررسی کرده و الگوی ساختاری فرضیه‌ها و روابط متغیرهای نهفته را آزمایش می­کند. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را 15386 دختر و پسر دبیرستانی منطقه یک تبریز تشکیل می­دادند که در سال تحصیلی 1398-1397 مشغول به تحصیل بودند. نمونه به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی متناسب (کلاس هفتم ، هشتم ، نهم) انتخاب شد و از آنجا که پرسش‌نامه اصلی دارای 40 مؤلفه بود، 10 نفر برای هر مؤلفه و 402 نفر در کل انتخاب شدند. داده‌ها با استفاده از پرسش‌نامه نگرش به فناوری لی آ و کوآ (Liou & Kuo) 2014، پرسش‌نامه نگرش کارآفرینانه آتاید (Athayde) 2009 و پرسش‌نامه محقق ساخته نگرش به کار و فناوری جمع آوری شد. برای آزمون فرضیه‌ها از تحلیل معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار Smart PLS 3 استفاده گردید.
 یافته‌ها: یافته­ها نشان داد بین برنامه درسی کار و فناوری، نگرش به فناوری و نگرش به کارآفرینی، رابطه تنگاتنگی وجود دارد. فرضیه­ها در سطح معنی­داری 001/0 و  بالا­تر بودن آماره t از 96/1، معنی­دار هستند. نگرش به درس کار و فناوری، 44/0 خودکارآمدی یادگیری فناوری، 56/0 ارزش یادگیری فناوری، 56/0 راهبرد­­های یادگیری فناوری، 63 /0 جهت­­گیری هدف یادگیری فناوری، 64/0 محرک محیط یادگیری فناوری، 54/0 ایجاد خود تنظیمی یادگیری فناوری، 68/0 پیاده سازی خودتنظیمی یادگیری فناوری، 40/0 رهبری دیگران ، 56/0 دستاورد، 30/0 کنترل شخصی، 42/0 خلاقیت، 38/0 ابتکار دانش­آموزان را تبیین می­کند.
نتیجه‌گیری:  نگرش به درس کار و فناوری مؤلفه­های نگرش فناورانه و مؤلفه­های نگرش به کار­آفرینی را تبیین می­کند. اهمیت بالای نگرش مثبت به درس کار و فناوری در داشتن رابطه مثبت با مؤلفه­های ارزشمند، خودکارآمدی، ارزش یادگیری، راهبردهای یادگیری، جهت­گیری هدف، محرک محیط، ایجاد خود­تنظیمی، پیاده­سازی خودتنظیمی، رهبری دیگران، دستاورد، کنترل شخصی، خلاقیت و ابتکار است؛ لذا در اولویت قرار­گرفتن این درس پیشنهاد می­شود. دانستن عوامل نگرشی و ارتباط آن­ها با موضوعات درسی می­تواند به معلمان در اصلاح برنامه­درسی و اثربخشی شیوه­­های تدریس کمک­کند تا دانش­آموزان در یادگیری دروس، عملکرد تحصیلی و شغلی موفق­تر باشند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between attitude to career and technology course with technological and entrepreneurship attitude of high school students in the first district of Tabriz

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Hosseinzadehnabati
  • F. Mahmoodi
  • Y. Adib

Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Developing a positive attitude toward the subject under study is one of the common educational goals today. Teachers as well as parents believe that the student's attitude toward the subject matter affects the student's success in school. High school students' perceptions regarding technology learning may influence their decision to study in a field at the university and work in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics which are considered to be the basis of economic development in developed countries. During the past decades, there has been a growing gap between the scientific and technical skills offered by the schools and the economic demand in this area, and the number of the learners and those who have been trained in technology and science has decreased in some cases. Since the main objectives of the field of education and learning  of the work and technology curriculum in the document of fundamental transformation of education for the first  year of high school is obtaining  the merits and positive attitude towards technology and entrepreneurship, the aim of this study  is investigating the relationship between attitude toward  work and technology with technological attitude and Entrepreneurship of high school students in region one of Tabriz in the academic year of 2018-2019.  
Materials and MethodS: This study was a correlational research using structural equation modeling method. Data were analyzed using least squares method. This method tests the pattern in two steps which include the measurement and structural pattern test. The measurement model examines the validity and validity of measurement tools and research structures and tests the structural pattern of hypotheses and relationships of latent variables. The statistical population consisted of 15386 high school boys and girls in district one of Tabriz who were studying in the academic year of 2018-2019. The sample was selected by proportional random sampling method (the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade) and since the original questionnaire had 40 components, 10 subjects were selected for each component and on the whole, 402 subjects were selected. Data were collected using the Liou and Kuo Technological Attitude Questionnaire (2014), Athayde Entrepreneurial Attitude Questionnaire (2009), and a researcher-made attitude to career and technology c­­­ourse Questionnaire. To test the hypotheses, structural equation analysis using Smart PLS 3 software was used.
Findings: The findings showed that there was a very close relationship between career and technology course, attitude to technology and entrepreneurship. Hypotheses were significant at 0.001 level and t-statistic was significant as it was higher than 1.96. Attitude to career and technology course explains  self-efficacy of learning technology as 0.44, the value of earning technology as 0.56, strategies of learning technology  as 0.56, goal orientation of learning technology as 0.63, environmental stimulus of learning technology  as 0.64, self-regulation-triggering of learning technology as 0.54, self-Regulation Implementation of learning technology as  0.68, others’ leadership as 0.40, achievement as 0.56, personal control as 0.30, creativity as 0.42, and intuition as 0.38.
Conclusion: Attitude to career and technology course explained the components of technological attitude and the components of attitude to entrepreneurship. The high significance of a positive attitude the career and technology course lies in having a positive relationship with valuable components such as self-efficacy, learning value, strategies of learning, goal orientation, environment stimulus, creating self-regulation, leadership of others, achievement, self-control, creativity and intuition; so it is recommended to prioritize this course. Knowing the attitude factors and  their relationship to the subjects  of courses can help teachers to improve the curriculum and the effectiveness of teaching methods so that students can be more successful in learning their lessons, academic performance, and career.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technological Attitude
  • Entrepreneurship Attitude
  • Career and Technology course

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نامه به سردبیر

سر دبیر نشریه فناوری آموزش، با تواضع انتشار نامه های واصله از نویسندگان و خوانندگان و بحث در سامانه نشریه را ظرف 3 ماه از تاریخ انتشار آنلاین مقاله در سامانه و یا قبل از انتشار چاپی نشریه، به منظور اصلاح و نظردهی امکان پذیر نموده است.، البته این شامل نقد در مورد تحقیقات اصلی مقاله نمی باشد.

توچه به موارد ذیل پیش از ارسال نامه به سردبیر لازم است در نظر گرفته شود:


[1]نامه هایی که شامل گزارش از آمار، واقعیت ها، تحقیقات یا نظریه ها هستند، لازم است همراه با منابع معتبر و مناسب باشند، اگرچه ارسال بیش از زمان 3 نامه توصیه نمی گردد

[2] نامه هایی که بجای انتقاد سازنده به ایده های تحقیق، مشتمل بر حملات شخصی به نویسنده باشند، توجه و چاپ نمی شود

[3] نامه ها نباید بیش از 300 کلمه باشد

[4] نویسندگان نامه لازم است در ابتدای نامه تمایل یا عدم تمایل خود را نسبت به چاپ نظریه ارسالی نسبت به یک مقاله خاص اعلام نمایند

[5] به نامه های ناشناس ترتیب اثر داده نمی شود

[6] شهر، کشور و محل سکونت نویسندگان نامه باید در نامه مشخص باشد.

[7] به منظور شفافیت بیشتر و محدودیت حجم نامه، ویرایش بر روی آن انجام می پذیرد.

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