فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزش عالی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه رهبری و توسعه، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه اهداف: امروزه، آموزش مجازی به‌عنوان یکی از کاربردهای مهم فن‌آوری‌های جدید اطلاعات و ارتباطات در جهان مطرح و فعالیت‌های گسترده‌ای در این راستا آغاز گردیده است این امکان می‌تواند یکی از گزینه‌های مورد توجه برای پر کردن خلأهای آموزشی، در نبود دسترسی به آموزش حضوری و در نهایت ارتقای عدالت آموزشی برای افراد در مناطق روستایی و دوردست باشد. مساله ای که ما در این پژوهش به دنبال دست‌یابی  به آن بودیم این است که آیا کسانی که مخاطب این شکل از آموزش بوده‌اند نیز آن را به عنوان یک تجربه عادلانه درک کرده‌اند؟ یا در نگاهی دقیق‌تر کدام بخش از این نوع آموزش‌ها به درک احساس عدالت در این افراد منجر شده و در کدام بخش بی‌عدالتی وجه پررنگ درک افراد در تجارب زیسته‌شان بوده است؟ در یک جمله هدف این پژوهش بررسی تجربیات دانشجویان مجازی دانشگاه‌های جامع تهران از وضعیت عدالت آموزشی در آموزش مجازی بود تا زوایا و ابعاد آن مشخص شود.
روشها: این مطالعه به روش تحقیق کیفی با رویکرد پدیدارشناسی انجام‌شده است. یکى از موارد مناسب براى کاربرد روش پدیدارشناسى پاسخ به این سؤال است که آیا نیاز به روشن‌سازی بیشتر پدیده‌ای خاص وجود دارد؟ وضعیت عدالت در آموزش‌های مجازی هنوز به درستی در هیچ پژوهشی بررسی نشده است؛ ازاین‌رو پژوهشگران حاضر رویکرد فوق را براى بررسى این مسأله انتخاب کردند. در این پژوهش با توجه به هدف مطالعه، شرکت‌کنندگان بر اساس نمونه‌گیری معیاری از بین دانشجویان مجازی که دوره‌های مجازی دانشگاه‌های جامع تهران (دانشگاه‌های امیرکبیر، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی و دانشگاه تهران) را تجربه نموده و معیارهای ورود به این مطالعه را دارا بودند انتخاب شدند. فرایند گزینش نمونه‌ها ادامه پیدا کرد تا هنگامی‌که داده‌ها در 32 مصاحبه به اشباع رسیدند. به‌منظور جمع‌آوری اطلاعات، از مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته استفاده شد. در این پژوهش متن مصاحبه‌ها با استفاده از روش اسمیت مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت در ادامه کار جهت تائید روایی و دقت تحقیق، معتبر بودن، اطمینان‌پذیری و قابلیت تأیید داده‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای تضمین معتبر بودن، یافته‌های این مطالعه به شرکت‌کنندگان ارائه شد و ایشان نظرات خود را در مورد هماهنگى یافته‌ها با تجربیات خود به پژوهشگر ابراز کردند، همچنین تعمق مشارکتی پیرامون مضمون‌های پدیدار شده توسط پژوهشگر انجام شد. پژوهشگران با حفظ مستندات در تمام مراحل پژوهش قابلیت تأیید این پژوهش را تضمین نمودند. به‌منظور رعایت ملاحظات اخلاقی، قبل از شروع مصاحبه، شرکت‌کنندگان از اهداف و اهمیت تحقیق آگاه شدند و با رضایت آگاهانه در تحقیق شرکت نمودند. همچنین به شرکت‌کنندگان تأکید شد که مشخصات آنان در طول تحقیق و بعدازآن به‌صورت محرمانه حفظ می‌گردد.
یافته‌ها: سوال اصلی پژوهش این بود: دانشجویان در مورد عدالت و بی عدالتی در آموزش مجازی چه تجربیاتی دارند؟ در این بخش از پژوهش اطلاعات جمع‌آوری‌شده از اجرای مصاحبه‌ها مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفتند. مصاحبه‌شوندگان در این پژوهش 32 نفر دانشجوی مجازی بودند که در دامنه سنى 23-49 سال قرار داشتند. در آنالیز مصاحبه‌ها، مفاهیم اصلی از دل جملات ابراز شده توسط سوژه‌ها بیرون کشیده شد و در قالب مفهومی تقلیل یافته بیان شد، در نتیجه 153 کد توصیفی حاصل شد. در مرحله بعد با تأمل در کدهای توصیفی کدهای متداخل و مشابه و مرتبط شناسایی شد. این مفاهیم بر اساس اشتراکات، تشابهات و هم‌پوشی معنایی در قالب 20 کد تفسیری ادغام گردید . در نهایت در آخرین مرحله کدهای تفسیری به 7 کد تبیینی تقلیل یافت: برابری دانشجویان با ویژگی‌های متفاوت (وضعیت جغرافیایی، وضعیت شغلی و توانایی یادگیری)، برابری دانشجویان در تعامل با اساتید (برابری باوجود ویژگی‌های ظاهری و فرهنگ‌های متفاوت)، شکل نگرفتن تعامل واقعی (تعاملات کوتاه و شکننده)، مشکلات محتوایی (محتوای غیرکاربردی، عدم نظارت در تدوین محتوا و نداشتن برنامه‌ریزی مدون و مشخص در ارائه دروس)، نگرش نادرست سازمانی به دانشجویان مجازی (نگرش سرمایه‌ای داشتن به دانشجویان و عدم توجه به توانایی‌های واقعی دانشجویان) نابرابری در استفاده از تسهیلات و میزان هزینه‌ها (هزینه‌های بالای آموزشی و نابرابری در استفاده از تسهیلات) و نابرابری در ارائه خدمات آموزشی (نداشتن الگوی رفتاری سازمانی متناسب با آموزش مجازی، تعداد کم کارمندان جهت پاسخگویی به نیازهای آموزشی دانشجویان، تعداد بالای دانشجویان در کلاس و استفاده از اساتید نامناسب در تدریس).
نتیجه‌گیری: عدالت و تحقق آن همواره یکی از اصلی‌ترین شعارها در عرصه آموزش است. مشارکت‌کنندگان در پژوهش حاضر گاه آن‌را در ارتباط جستجو کرده و گاه بر روی امکانات ارائه شده در فرایند آموزش تمرکز کرده‌اند. اگر نگاهی کلی بر مضامین به دست آمده داشته باشیم می‌توان آنها را در دو طیف عدالت و بی‌عدالتی  جای داد، هر چند مصادیق بیشتری در بخش بی‌عدالتی یافت شد. نتیجه‌گیری اصلی دیگری که از پژوهش حاضر حاصل شد پیوند غالب مصادیق عدالت به خصوصیات ذاتی آموزش مجازی و پیوند غالب مصادیق بی‌عدالتی به نحوه مدیریت در اجرای آموزش مجازی و نداشتن امکانات متناسب با این شکل از آموزش است. در نهایت باید متذکر شد که با توجه به استفاده‌ی روزافزون از آموزش مجازی و تفاوت اساسی آن با آموزش حضوری، مسائل اخلاقی نیز به شکل متفاوتی در فرایند آن بروز می‌یابد که نیازمند شناخت و بررسی دقیق است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The lived experiences of students from educational justice in virtual education

نویسندگان [English]

  • E. Jafari 1
  • N. Homayooni Bakhshayesh 1
  • J. Alamolhoda 2

1 Department of Higher Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Educational leadership and development, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Nowadays, virtual education has become one of the most important applications of information and communication technologies in the world and extensive activities have been started in this field, This can be one of the favorite options to fill the educational gaps, in the unavailability of face to face education and   eventually leading to the promotion of educational justice for people in rural and remote areas. The aim of this study was determing whether those who were the target audience for  this form of education have perceived it as a fair experience? To be more precise, which part of  this type of education has led to feeling of a sense of justice in these individuals and which part has led a significant feeling of injustice in their experiences? In short, the aim of this study was  investigating the experiences of virtual students of Tehran’s comprehensive universities of the  state of educational justice in virtual education in order to determine its aspects and dimensions.
Methods and Materials: This study was conducted as a qualitative research using the phenomenology method. One of the suitable cases to apply the phenomenological method is providing an answer to the following question:  Is there any need to further clarify a specific phenomenon? ?  The state of justice in virtual education has not yet been properly studied in any research; therefore, the researchers in the present study selected the above approach to study this issue. Based on its goal,  in this study, , standard sampling was used among virtual students who have experienced virtual courses of Tehran Comprehensive Universities (Amirkabir University, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran University of Science and Technology, K. N. Toosi University of Technology and Tehran University) and met the criteria for entering this study. The sampling process continued until the data were saturated in 32 interviews. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. The interviews were analyzed using the Smith method. In order to confirm the validity and accuracy of the research, the reliability and verifiability of the data were examined. To ensure validity, the findings of this study were presented to the participants and they expressed their views to the researcher on the correspondence of the findings with their experiences; moreover, collaborative reflection on the emerged themes was conducted by the researcher. The researchers ensured the validity of this research by maintaining the documentation at all stages of the study. Due to ethical considerations, Before before startingthe interview, the participants were informed of the goals and importance of the research and participated in the research with informed consent. Participants were also assured that their Identity would be kept confidential during and after the study.
Findings: The main question of this research was: What experiences do students have regarding justice and injustice in virtual education? In this part of the research, the data collected from the interviews were analysed. The interviewees in this study were 32 virtual students who were in the age range of 23-49 years. In analyzing the interviews, the main concepts were extracted from the sentences expressed by the participants and were represented in a reduced conceptual form, resulting in 153 descriptive codes. In the next step, by reflecting on the descriptive codes, overlapping, similar, and related codes were identified. These concepts were integrated in the form of 20 interpretive codes based on commonalities, similarities and semantic overlaps. Finally, in the last step, the interpretive codes were reduced to 7 explanatory codes: students' equity with different characteristics (geographicalcondition, job status, and learning competence), students' equality in their interaction with professors (equality despite  differences in appearance features and cultures), lack of real interactions (short and fragile interactions), content problems (non-practical content, lack of supervision in content development and lack of codified and specific planning in presentingcourses), organizational misconceptions toward virtual students (having capitalistic attitude to students and not paying attention to students' real abilities), inequality in the use of facilities and costs (high educational costs and inequality in the use of facilities), and inequality in  providing educational services (lack of appropriate organizational behavior patterns suitable for virtual teaching, low staff number to meet the educational needs of students, high number of students in classrooms and the use of inappropriate teachers for teaching).
Conclusion: Justice and its realization has always been one of the main slogans in the field of education. Participants in the present study have sometimes focused on communication and sometimes focused on the facilities provided in the training process. If we take a general look at the themes obtained, we can divide them into two spectrums of justice and injustice although more examples have been found in the section on injustice. Another main conclusion thast is drawn from the present study is the predominant link between the instances of justice and the inherent characteristics of virtual education and the predominant link between the instances of injustice in the way  the virtual teaching is managed and lack of facilities appropriate for this form of education. Finally, it should be noted that due to the increasing use of virtual education and its fundamental difference from face-to-face education, ethical issues also appear differently in its process which require accurate recognition and study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • virtual
  • Teaching
  • Educational

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