فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مرمت، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم ‌و ‌صنعت، تهران، ایران

3 گروه معماری منظر، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: تغییرات ایجاد شده در نوع زندگی موجب قطع تدریجی ارتباط کودکان با طبیعت و فضاهای باز شده است و مدارس یکی از مهم‌ترین فضاها برای برقراری دوباره این ارتباط می‌باشند؛ چرا که دومین مکانی است که کودکان پس از خانه زمان زیادی را در آن سپری می­کنند و اکثر فعالیت‌های حرکتی روزانه‌ کودکان در طول روز در آن انجام می‌شود. در تحقیق حاضر با هدف تبیین ویژگی­های فضاهای باز مدارس در جهت افزایش آرامش و یادگیری کودکان، با تحلیل اطلاعات به­دست­آمده از مطالعات پیشین، معیارهای مؤثر در افزایش حس دلبستگی کودکان به فضاهای باز مدارس تدوین شد.
بررسی پیشینه پژوهش و تدوین مبانی نظری در دو بخش انجام شد؛ در ابتدا با تجمیع پژوهش­های مختلف پیرامون دلبستگی، ابعاد دلبستگی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن سعی شده است به رابطه بین این عوامل با یکدیگر و نیز با مقوله معماری پرداخته شود تا بتوان به عوامل مؤثر در ایجاد دلبستگی در حوزه معماری دست یافت. پس ‌از آن پیشینه تحقیق در حوزه کودک و فضای باز بررسی و متغیرهای مؤثر در ایجاد دلبستگی شناسایی شده است. سپس این معیارها، بر اساس نظرات متخصصان معماری تدقیق گردید.
روش‌ها‌: به ‌منظور دستیابی به هدف پژوهش و یافتن ارتباط میان عوامل مؤثر در دلبستگی با متغیرهای استخراج ­شده، از سامانه کیفی-کمّی، روش تحلیل محتوا و تکنیک دلفی بهره­گیری شد. از این­رو جهت دست‌یابی به برآیندی جامع­تر و ترکیبی از محتوای کمّی و کیفی، پس از جستجوی منابع و جمع­آوری اطلاعات، از روش تحلیل محتوا بهره گرفته شد تا بتوان داده­های خام و مؤلفه­های موجود را به صورتی منظم دسته­بندی کرد. پس از آن، جهت تأیید چارچوب و متغیرهای استخراج شده توسط گروهی از متخصصان و صاحب­نظران در حوزه­ معماری، از پرسش­نامه­­ای بر پایه­ی ارزش­گذاری طیف لیکرت استفاده شد. داده‌های به‌دست‌آمده از پرسش‌نامه‌ها، توسط تحلیل عاملی در نرم‌افزار Spss تحلیل شد. پایایی پرسش‌نامه توسط ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. کفایت حجم نمونه­ها توسط آزمون KMO و سطح معناداری بارتلت تحلیل و ارزیابی شده است.
 
یافته‌ها: یافته­های حاصل نشان داد که از دیدگاه متخصصان، متغیرهای مستقل مطرح ‌شده بر اساس پاسخ‌های پرسش‌شوندگان را می‌توان در پنج گروه عوامل تأثیرگذار دسته‌بندی نمود. با توجه به تعاریف عوامل دلبستگی در پیشینه تحقیق و یافته­های حاصل از آزمون آماری، متغیرهای به­دست آمده نام­گذاری شدند. از این­رو متغیرهای تحرک­پذیری محیط، انعطاف­پذیری فضا و گوشه­های دنج تحت (عوامل تعاملی)، محیط آشنا، طول مدت تحصیل، جنسیت کودک و طبقه فرهنگی- اقتصادی وی (عوامل فردی)، ابعاد فضای باز، آسایش کالبدی محیط، تنوع فضایی و ادراک فضایی (عوامل کالبدی)، مشارکت کودک، عناصر طبیعی محیط و ایمنی و احساس امنیت (عوامل اجتماعی-گروهی) و بازی­سازی، تحریک‌کنندگی محیط و رنگ و بافت آن زیرمجموعه (عوامل فعالیتی) طبقه­بندی شدند.

نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به یافته‌های پژوهش، مهم­ترین معیارها به‌‌منظور افزایش حس دلبستگی کودک به فضای باز مدارس در پنج عامل اصلی (تعاملی، فردی، کالبدی، اجتماعی-گروهی و فعالیتی) و 17 متغیر طبقه‌بندی شدند. سپس راهکارهایی در راستای شاخصه‌های فوق در ارتباط با مقوله طراحی مدارس پیشنهاد شده است تا بتوان علاوه بر ایجاد محیطی منطبق بر خواسته‌های دانش­آموزان، ایجاد فرصت مشارکت برای کودکان و در نتیجه موجبات افزایش آگاهی‌های اجتماعی و توسعه خلاق در جامعه را فراهم آورد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Design indicators affecting the student’s place attachment in open spaces of schools from the perspective of experts in architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Ebrahimzadeh 1
  • Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj 2
  • S. Norouzian Maleki 3
  • S. Piri 1

1 1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Restoration, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Changes in lifestyle have led to the gradual disconnection of children from nature and open spaces and schools are one of the most important spaces for re-establishing  this connection; because it is the second place where children spend a lot of time after home and most of the children's daily physical activities are done during the day. The present study was aimed  at explaining the characteristics of school outdoor spaces to improve the children’s relaxation and learning. Hence, after analyzing the information obtained from previous studies, the list of effective criteria to increase children’s sense of attachment to the open spaces of schools was proposed. The study of the research background and the compilation of theoretical foundations were done in two parts: At first, by combining different research  studies on the subject of place attachment, the dimensions of place attachment and the factors affecting it., the researchers have tried to deal with the relationship between these factors both with each other and with the  issue of architecture in order to  determine the effective factors in creating place attachment in the field of architecture.,  Afterwards, the background of research in the field of children and outdoor space was examined and the effective variables in creating place attachment were identified. Then, these initial criteria were checked on the basis of the perspective of the experts in architecture.
Methods: To achieve the research purpose and find the relationship between the effective factors in place attachment with the extracted variables, the qualitative-quantitative system,  the method of content analysis and Delphi technique were used.Therefore, in order to achieve a more comprehensive result and a combination of the quantitative and qualitative content, after searching for sources and collecting information, the content analysis method was used so that the raw data and the existing components can be categorized on an  orderly basis. Then, to confirm the framework and the variables extracted by a group of experts in the field of architecture, a questionnaire based on Likert scale was used. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed by factor analysis using the SPSS software. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The adequacy of the sample size was also assessed using the KMO statistic and Bartlett’s significance level.
Findings: The results showed that from the perspective of the experts, the independent variables can be classified into five groups of influential factors on the basis of the answers of the respondents. According to the definitions of attachment factors in the research background and the findings of the statistical test, the obtained variables were named. Hence, the variables such as the environmental mobility, space flexibility and cozy corners under (interactive factors), familiar environment, the study period, the child’s gender and culture-economic class (individual factors), dimensions of the open space, physical comfort of the environment, spatial diversity and spatial perception (physical factors), child participation, natural elements of the environment, safety and sense of security (socio-group factors) and playfulness, stimulation of the environment and its color and texture subset (activity factors) were classified.  
Conclusion: Based on the research findings, the most important criteria for increasing the child's sense of attachment to the open space of schools were classified into five main factors (interactive, individual, physical, socio-group and activity) and 17 variables.Moreover, strategies along with the above indicators in relation to school design have been proposed so that besides creating an environment that meets the demands of students, opportunities for children to participate can also be provided and, thus, the possibility of increasing the ocial awareness and creative development in the society can be created.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • school
  • children
  • Place Attachment
  • Sence of Belonging
  • Open space

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