فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم تربیتی ، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، تبریز، ایران

2 گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ارومیه، ایران

3 گروه مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: پژوهش­های انجام شده در موضوع کاربست فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در فعالیت­های کلاس درس، نشان داده است که تلاش­های صورت گرفته و هزینه­های کلان مصرف شده در راستای توانمندسازی مهارت‌های رایانه­ای معلمان، نتوانسته است تحولات مورد نظر را در نقش و فعالیت معلمان در مدارس ایجاد کند. از این­رو، هدف پژوهش حاضر مطالعه­ی پدیدارشناسانه فرآیند کسب شایستگی فناورانه معلمان ایران با هدف ارائه یک مدل بومی است.
روش‌ها:‌ این پژوهش کیفی از نوع پدیدارشناسی است؛ چراکه برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق از تجارب زیسته معلمان در دستیابی به شایستگی فناورانه در کلاس درس استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کیفی، تمام معلمان آموزش‌وپرورش شهرستان ارومیه است؛ با روش نمونه­گیری غیر احتمالی هدفمند و ملاحظه کردن ویژگی­های مورد نظر در انتخاب نمونه، و قاعده اشباع نظری، با 22 نفر از معلمان (13 زن و 9 مرد) مصاحبه شد. مشارکت‌کنندگان در مدارس دولتی، هیئت‌امنایی، هوشمند، غیرانتفاعی و روستایی (17 مدرسه مختلف) مشغول بودند. ابزار گردآوری داده­ها مصاحبه بود. دو تکنیک ضبط صدا و یادداشت‌برداری (با تأکید بر ضبط صدا) برای روش گردآوری داده­ها استفاده گردید و طرح انجام مصاحبه، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته است. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده­ها از رویکرد چهار مرحله­ای گیورگی (1970) در کدگذاری مصاحبه­ها استفاده گردید. انجام فرآیند کدگذاری در نرم­افزار MAXQDA10 انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها: یافته­های تحلیل کیفی حاکی از آن بود که فرآیند کسب شایستگی معلمان را می­توان در پنج مؤلفه یا گام دسته­بندی نمود که شامل مؤلفه‌های 1) ایجاد انگیزه/رغبت/علاقه در معلمان شامل زیرمولفه­های: «تغییر در دریافتی معلمان»، «تاثیرگذاری روی جایگاه معلمان»، «ایجاد احساس نیاز»، «دسته بندی معلمان بر اساس دانش پیشین»، «توجه به زمان بندی برگزاری دوره ها»، «تغییر نوع نگاه به شغل معلمی»، و «انتخاب استاد مناسب»؛ 2) برنامه­ریزی، شامل زیر مولفه­های «سطح بندی معلمان (نیازسنجی)»، «تعیین برنامه درسی (سرفصل­های آموزشی)»، «تعیین استاد مناسب» ، «تعیین مکان مناسب» و «تعیین زمان مناسبم؛ 3) «شروع فرآیند یادگیری» شامل زیر مولفه­های «آموزش سخت افزارها»، «آموزش نرم افزارها»، «آموزش مساله گشایانه»، «آموزش سواد اطلاعاتی»، «تسهیل دسترسی به منابع آموزشی» و «حمایت و پشتیبانی»؛ 4) پیاده­سازی فرایند یادگیری شامل زیر مولفه­های «دوره های آماده سازی بدو خدمت»، «دوره های آموزشی ضمن خدمت»، «دوره های تخصصی مدارس» و «دوره های آموزشی بیرون از مدارس»؛ و 5) «نهادینه ساختن شایستگی فناوری» شامل زیر مولفه­های «آموزش مسئله گشایانه»، «نهادینه ساختن همکاری بین معلمان» و «نهادینه ساختن دوره های پیگیری آموزش ها و یادگیری» است.
نتیجه ­گیری: این مدل با نگاه به نیازهای معلمان، شرایط و ساختار اداری آموزش‌وپرورش، امکانات مدارس، وضعیت برگزاری دوره­ها، همکاری بین معلمان و غیره ارائه شده است. در این مدل سعی شده است تمام عوامل تأثیرگذار در فرآیند کسب شایستگی فناوری معلم مطمح نظر قرار گرفته و هر کدام از آن‌ها بر اساس محتوای مصاحبه­ها در گام مربوطه ملاحظه شود. این مؤلفه‌ها یا گام­ها هر چند ساختاری سلسله مراتبطی و مرحله به مرحله­ای می­توانند داشته باشند ولی در بسیاری از مواقع قابلیت بازگشت و شروع از مرحله قبلی نیز می­توانند دارا باشند. امید است این مدل که مبتنی بر واقعیت زیسته موجود معلمان در ایران بنا نهاده شده استِ، گامی در راستای توسعه الگویی مناسب برای سازمان آموزش‌وپرورش و دیگر سازمان­ها در زمینه کسب شایستگی فناوری کارکنان باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Phenomenological Study of the Process of ICT-Competence of Iranian Teachers with the purpose of presenting a Native Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Habibi-Azar 1
  • J. Keyhan 2
  • B. Talebi 3

1 Department of education, Faculty of Humanties, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of education, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of education, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Research findings about the application of information and communication technologies in classroom has shown that despite the efforts had been done and the large amount of costs spent for empowering teachers' computer skills, but these activities have not been able to create desired changes in the role and activity of teachers in schools. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to study the phenomenological process of Iranian teachers' ICT competence in order to present a native model.
Materials and Method: This was a qualitative phenomenological research, because the lived experiences of teachers in achieving technological competence in the classroom have been used to explore the objectives of the study. The statistical population of this qualitative study were all teachers in Urmia city. 22 teachers (13 females and 9 males) were selected by non-probability purposeful sampling method with considering the desired characteristics and theoretical saturation based-rule. Participants who engaged in 17 different schools including public, board of trustees, smart, nonprofit, and rural schools, were selected. The data collection tool was semi-structured interview. Voice recording and note-taking (with emphasis on voice recording), as Two techniques for gathering data, were used. George's (1970) four-step coding approach were used to analyze the data. The coding process was performed in MAXQDA10 software.
Findings:The findings of the qualitative analysis indicated that the process of teachers ICT-competence can be organized into five components, including; 1) motivation/ tendency/ interest in teachers including the following sub-components: “Changing in teacher’s salary”, “Changing teachers’ position”, “Create need”, “Classification of teachers based on the prior knowledge”, “Pay attention to the timing of the courses” , “Changing the look to the teaching profession” and “Choosing the right professor”; 2) planning, including the following sub-components: “Teachers Rating (Needs Assessment)” , “Determining curriculum (educational topics)”, “Choosing the right professor”, “Locate the right place” and “Determine the right time”; 3) beginning of the learning process including the following components: “Hardware training”, “Software training”, “Problem-solving training”, “Information literacy training”, “Facilitate access to educational resources” and “Support”; 4) implementation of the learning process including the following sub-components:  “In-service preparation courses”, “In-service training courses”, “Specialized school courses”, and “Out-of-school courses” and 5) " institutionalization of technology competence " including the following sub-components:  “Problem-solving training’, “Formalize collaboration between teachers” and ‘Formalize follow-up courses for teaching and learning”.
Conclusion: This model is presented by looking at the needs of teachers, the conditions and Organizational structure of education, the facilities of schools, the status of courses, the cooperation between teachers, and so on. In this model, all the influential factors in the process of acquiring information and technology competence by teachers have been included and based on the content of the interviews, each of them has been considered in the relevant step. Although it could be organized these components or steps in hierarchical or step-by-step structure, but in many places it is possible to go back and start from the previous step. It is hoped that this model will be a step towards developing an appropriate model in the field of staff technology competence for the Education Organization and other organizations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competence
  • information and communication technology
  • Teachers
  • In-Service
  • Training

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