فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: خلاقیت یا آفرینندگی موضوعی بحث­بر­انگیز در حوزه­های مختلف علمی، به­ویژه علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی می باشد. اگر طراحی را به منزله­ی آفرینش ابتکاری اشکال ممکن از پیش تعیین­شده، برای دستیابی به اهداف مختلف انسانی، درنظربگیریم، در این فرایند خلاقیت به عنوان مفهومی چندسطحی، خود ناظر بر فرایندی است که اگرچه در ذهن انسانها شکل می­ گیرد، اما در الگو ها، شیوه ­ها و طرح ­های معماری نیز نمود عینی پیدا می کند. در دهه ­های اخیر بررسی مفهوم خلاقیت، چگونگی عملکرد آن، میزان تاثیرگذاری بر یادگیری و شیوه­ های آموزش­ دهی آن، از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار شده است. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی سطوح خلاقیت پایه و تغییر یافته واحد درسی طراحی معماری 3 در میان دانشجویان کارشناسی معماری بر اساس چهار مولفه ی اصلی آزمون تفکر خلاق تورنس (سیالیت، انعطاف­پذیری، ابتکار و بسط) و تکنیک اسکمپر است.
روش‌ها‌: داده های مورد نیاز این پژوهش، با استفاده از روش پژوهش آزمایشی، در قالب طرح پیش­آزمون و پس­آزمون، از طریق دو شیوه ی پرسشنامه تستی تورنس و اسکیس ترسیمی، در بین دانشجویان معماری دانشگاه آزاد اردبیل در نیمسال دوم سال تحصیلی 2017 -2018 جمع آوری گردیده است. نمونه پژوهش 40 دانشجو را شامل می­شود که در دو گروه با اساتید مجزا دسته­بندی شده­اند.  در گام اول با استفاده از پیش­آزمون، سطح خلاقیت دانشجویان در هر چهار بعد مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. سپس جهت تعیین خلاقیت تغییریافته، گروه اول با آموزش رایج مصوب آموزش عالی و گروه دوم با مداخله آزمایشی - از طریق اجرای برنامه آموزش خلاقیت محور (آموزش تکنیک یورش فکری)، در طی 6 جلسه و انجام تمرین های مربوطه، مورد آموزش و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در گام دوم با استفاده از تکنیک اسکمپر، آزمون اسکیس ترسیمی از هر دو گروه اخذ شد.
یافته‌ها: داده­های آماری با دو روش واریانس چندمتغییری و یک­راهه در SPSS تحلیل شده­­است. نتایج حاصل از اجرای روش آزمایشی نشان­دهنده آن است که تفاوت معنی­داری بین گروه آزمایشی و گروه کنترل (شیوه ی آموزشی رایج و مصوب شده) در سطوح مولفه­های تفکر خلاق تورنس وجود دارد و از بین چهار مؤلفه تفکر خلاق تورنس، در هردو آزمون تستی و طراحی ، بعد سیالیت بیش از سایر مؤلفه ها توسط تکنیک های آموزش خلاقیت بهبود یافته است. در واقع می­توان چنین استنباط نمود که دانشجویان بعد از یادگیری تکنیک­های خلاقیت در مرحله پس­آزمون توانستند تعداد ایده­های بیشتری را مرتبط با موضوع طراحی ترسیم نمایند که نشان از افزایش سطح سیالی خلاقیت این گروه بود. هم چنین بر مبنای تحلیل داده­ها، بعد ابتکار، نسبت به سایر مولفه ها در سطح پایین تر قرار گرفته است.
نتیجه‌گیری:  درحالی­که آموزش مبتنی بر خلاقیت، مهارت­های طراحی معماری را افزایش می­دهد و بر مؤلفه­های خلاقیت (سیالیت، انعطاف­پذیری، ابتکار و بسط) تأثیر می­گذارد، شیوه فعلی آموزش می­تواند اصالت دانش آموزان را تضعیف کرده و روند طراحی را به تقلید سوق دهد. افزون بر این، در بعد ابتکار به علت تاثیرپذیری آن از عواملی مانند زمان و مکان، تجربه دانشجوها، تمرین کافی و تعامل گروهی، در نظر داشتن هریک از این مولفه‌ها در تکنیک‌های ارزیابی پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluatting the impact of Brainstorming and Scamper teqnique on promoting the creativity of architectural design skills

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Talebi 1
  • M. Moosavi 1
  • K. Poushaneh 2

1 Department of architecture, Faculty of architecture and urban planning, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Curriculum Planning, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Creativity or Innovation is a controversial issue in various scientific fields, especially educational sciences and psychology. If we consider design as an imaginative creation of pre intended possible form of things to achieve different humanistic purpose; in this process, Creativity, as a multilevel concept, can be thought as a process that, although formed in the human minds, but is has also objective appearance in architectural patterns, methods and designs. In recent decades, the creativity concept Investigation, its functions and its influence on learning - as well as the ways of teaching creativity - have become a matter of great importance. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the levels of basic and altered creativity in the architectural design studio (3) course, based on the four main components of Torrance Creativity Thinking Test (Fluency, flexibility, originality and Elaboration) and Scamper tecnique.
Methods: The required data of this research were collected by using the experimental research method in the form of the pre-test and post-test design through both Torrance's test  and drawing sketch among the students of Ardabil Azad university in the second semester of the academic year 2017-2018.  The research sample consisted of 40 students divided into two groups with two individual instructors. In first step, by using the pre-test, the level of students' creativity in each of 4 dimensions was measured. Then, in order to evaluate altered creativity, the first group was trained by common training - approved in higher education- and the second group instructed and evaluated through the experimental intervention – implementation of creativity training program (Teaching Brainstorming technique) in 6 sessions, by Related exercises. Finally, in second step, by using Scamper technique, drawing sketch test was given to both groups.
Findings: Statistical data were analyzed by running both MANOVA and ANOVA techniques in SPSS. The Results obtained from the implementation of the experimental method, showed statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group (common and approved method of training) at the levels of Torrance creative thinking components. And among 4 components of Torrance creative thinking, Fluency has been improved by creativity training techniques more than other components in both multiple choice and sketching tests. In fact, it could be deducted that students, were able to draw more ideas related to the subject of design, after learning creative techniques in the post-test step, which showed an increase in the fluid level of creativity of this group. Also, based on data analysis, the originality dimension is at a lower level than other components.
Conclusion: While creativity based instruction enhances architectural design skills and impacts on all   components of creativity (Fluency, flexibility, originality and Elaboration), the current teaching method not only can undermine the students' originality but also may lead the design process to imitation. In addition, in the originality dimension, due to factors which has influence on it such as time and space, the student's experience, adequate practice and group interaction, it is suggested to consider each of these components in assessment techniques.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Creativity components"
  • "Brainstorming"
  • "Scamper"
  • "Torrance Creative Thinking test"
  • "Architectural design"

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