عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study aimed to compare the effects of Merrill and Gagne's instructional design models on students' cognitive load, learning and instructional efficiency in Science lesson. The study was quasi-experimental with pretest and posttest design with two experimental and one control groups. The statistical population consisted of all male students of the sixth grade elementary school of Qazvin. The sample including three 30 students classes were selected through convenience sampling procedure and the classes randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The materials and instruments included instructional multimedia contents, learning tests, and cognitive load assessment scale. The first experimental group studied the multimedia based on the Merrill model, the second group studied the multimedia based on the Gagne model and the control group studied non-model multimedia. Data were analyzed by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results showed that multimedia based on the Merrill instructional design model compared to multimedia based on Gagne instructional design model and non-model multimedia, has led to less cognitive load, more learning and instructional efficiency. Also, multimedia based on Gagne's instructional design model compared to non-model multimedia led to less cognitive load, more learning and instructional efficiency.
 Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Salehi, V., Moradimokhles, H., Ghasemtabar, S. A., Qarabaghi, H. (2017). Effect of Pre-Training on Nursing Students’ Intrinsic Cognitive Load, Learning and Instructional Efficiency. Research in medical science education, 9(3), 38-46. [In Persian]
 Norouzi, D., Razavi, A. (2016). Instructional design foundations. Tehran; Samt. [In Persian]
 Jonassen, D. (2004). Learning to solve problems: An instructional design guide. John Wiley & Sons.
Fardanesh, H. (2012). Theoretical foundations of instructional technology. Tehran; Samt. [In Persian]
 Kalyuga, S. (2009). Managing Cognitive Load in Adaptive Multimedia Learning. New York: Hershey.
 Sweller, J. Ayres, P. & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load Theory. New York, Hershey.
 Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., Kirschner, F., & Zambrano, J. (2018). From cognitive load theory to collaborative cognitive load theory. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 13(2), 213-233.
 Plass, J. L., Moreno, R., Brunken, R. (2010). Cognitive load theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Abdi, A., Rostami, M. (2018). The Effect of Instruction Based on Cognitive Load theory on Academic Achievement, Perceived Cognitive Load and Motivation to Learning in Science Courses. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation, 10(40), 43-67. [In Persian]
 Zare, M., Zarei Zavaraki, E., Amirteimoury, M., Sarikhani, R. (2016). Comparing the Extraneous Cognitive Load of Designing an Instruction with Merrill's Model between Instruction by Multimedia and Traditional Methods. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 6(3(23)), 25-40. [In Persian]
 Zare, M., Salari, M., & Sarikhani, R. (2016). The impact of educational strategies of cognitive load theory on extraneous cognitive load and learning in physiology course. Journal of Medical Education Development. 9(22): 44-52. [In Persian]
 Plass, J. L., Chun, D. M., Mayer, R. E., & Leutner, D. (2003). Cognitive load in reading a foreign language text with multimedia aids and the influence of verbal and spatial abilities. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 221–243.
[Mehrvarz, M., Moradi, M., Abdoli, S. (2014). Comparing the effect of teaching methods based on Dick & Carey’s instructional design model and Gagne’s instructional design model on students’ motivation and learning. Journal of Curriculum Research, 3(2), 73-93. [In Persian]
[Moradi, R., Khazaee, S., Karimi, R., Velayati, E. (2016). Impact of the multimedia instructional based instructional design model Ganyeh on learning and retention of mentally retarded students. Technology of Instruction and Learning, 2(5), 47-66. [In Persian]