فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران

چکیده

آنچه از دغدغه­های جدی در نظام شهرنشینی معاصر تلقی می­گردد، شکاف در حال گسترش بین انسان و نظام­های طبیعی است. تراکم شدید ساختمان­ها ، لمس تکنولوژی به جای لمس طبیعت و بی­علاقگی نسبت به دغدغه­های زیست محیطی را برای نوجوانان شهرنشین به همراه داشته است که می­تواند سطح سلامت­روان یک نوجوان را به سبب حضور در مسیر بلوغ دچار بحران جدی نماید. بسیاری از مطالعات در حوزه محیط­های یادگیری حاکی از اثربخشی تعامل با فرآیندهای طبیعی بر ارتقا هویت اجتماعی نوجوانان است و بر این اساس ایجاد بستر فعالیت مناسب در جهت کاهش آسیب­های اجتماعی و کسب مهارت‌های اجتماعی می­تواند در کاهش فشارهای روانی موثر باشد.
پیشینه و اهداف: پژوهش ها نشان داده است تعامل نوجوان با طبیعت در بهبود استرس و ارتقا بهداشت روانی موثر و همچنین محیط های یادگیری طبیعت محور نقش مهمی در توسعه هویت اجتماعی نوجوانان دارند. این پژوهش سعی دارد با شناخت و تحلیل الگوهای رویکرد بیوفیلیک به عنوان رویکردی طبیعت مبنا همراه با کسب توانمندی ها و مهارت های مرتبط در محیط‌های آموزشی به ارتقا سطح سلامت روان نوجوانان بپردازد.پژوهش حاضر ضمن تبیین الگوهای منطبق بر تجربیات نگرش بیوفیلیک (زیست­گرا) به اولویت­بندی شاخص­های محیطی مرتبط در جهت کسب توانمندی­های (شناختی، رفتاری، هیجانی، انگیزشی) دوره نوجوانی در بستر یادگیری می­پردازد.
روش‌ها‌: روش مورد استفاده بر حسب هدف، کاربردی و شیوه‌ی مطالعه بر حسب ماهیت ، توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و پیمایشی می‌باشد.گردآوری اطلاعات بر مبنای مطالعه منابع کتابخانه­ای و در مرحله میدانی از طریق توزیع پرسشنامه و مصاحبه و جهت تحلیل داده­ها از نرم­افزار SPSS  استفاده شده است.  برای آزمون معناداری رابطه متغیرها در فرضیات پژوهش از آزمون خی­دو، برای بررسی میزان همبستگی متغیرهای مستقل و وابسته از آزمون پیرسون استفاده شده است که بیانگر برقراری رابطه همبستگی بین متغیرهای پژوهش است که نشان می­دهد بین تمامی متغیرها دقت کمتر از 05/0 برقرار است و ضریب همبستگی تمامی رابطه ها مثبت است. ضریب همبستگی بین تمامی متغیرها بالای6/0است  و این به معنای برقراری رابطه مثبت و قوی بین تمامی متغیرهاست و جهت اولویت­بندی رابطه­ها و راهکارها از آزمون فریدمن استفاده گردیدوجهت تعیین اعتبار اندازه­گیری روایی پرسشنامه از روایی­محتوا استفاده شده­است و همچنین جهت بررسی پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ در نرم افزار  SPSSاستفاده شده­است.
یافتهها: میان نوع تجربیات محیطی (تجربه مستقیم طبیعت، تجربه غیرمستقیم طبیعت، تجربه فضا و مکان( جهت برقرای تعامل سازگار نوجوان و طبیعت تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. در این میان تجربه ارتباط مستقیم نوجوان با کسب توانمندی شناختی بیشترین تاثیر و پس از آن به ترتیب ، تجربه غیرمستقیم طبیعت با کسب توانمدی شناختی و تجربه فضا و مکان با کسب توانمندی رفتاری بیشترین تاثیر را در ارتقا سلامت روان نوجوانان در پی­خواهد داشت.و براساس اطلاعات بدست آمده توانمندی های اجتماعی از طریق تجارب طراحی بیوفیلیک اولویت بندی شدند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج حاصله، مبین این موضوع است که تجربیات طراحی در بستر یادگیری بر مبنای رویکرد بیوفیلیک به سبب برقراری ارتباط عمیق چندجانبه با طبیعت می­تواند پاسخگوی نیازهای روحی و روانی دوره نوجوانی باشند. ارائه راهکارهایی در تناسب با الگوهای این رویکرد در محیط های یادگیری طبیعت محور می تواند شرایط کسب کفایت اجتماعی را فراهم و به ارتقا سلامت روان نوجوانان کمک نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An exploration on the responsibility to social adequacy in adolescent learning environments affected by the type of design experience based on the biophilic attitude

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Rajabipour
  • M. Delshad siahkali

Department of Architecture, Lahijan Unit, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

چکیده [English]

What is considered as a serious concern in the contemporary urban system is the widening gap between man and natural systems. The extreme density of buildings has brought about interaction with technology instead of interaction with nature, and lack of interest in environmental concerns for the urbanite adolescents, which can lead to a serious crisis in the mental health of an adolescent due to being on the path of maturity. Many studies in the field of learning environments indicate the effectiveness of interaction with natural processes on the promotion of adolescents' social identity; therefore, creating a suitable environment for reducing social harm and acquiring social skills can be effective in reducing mental pressures.
Background and Objectives: Researches have shown that adolescents' interaction with nature is effective in improving stress and promoting effective mental health, and also nature-based learning environments play an important role in improving adolescents' social identity. This study tries to improve the level of adolescents’ mental health by recognizing and analyzing biophilic approach patterns as a nature-based approach, along with acquiring related capabilities and skills in educational environments. In addition to the explanation of the patterns corresponding to the experiences of biophilic (bio-oriented) attitudes, the present study prioritizes the related environmental indicators to acquire the abilities (cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motivational) of the adolescence period in the context of learning.
Methods: The used method is applied in terms of purpose, and the study method is descriptive-analytical and survey in terms of nature. Data collection is based on the study of library resources, and in the field stage, it is based on the distribution of questionnaires and interviews; also, the SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The Chi-square test is used to examine the significance of the relationship between variables in the research hypotheses, and the Pearson test is used to examine the correlation of independent and dependent variables that indicates the establishment of a correlation between research variables, which shows that the accuracy between all variables is less than 0.05 and the correlation coefficient of all relations is positive. The correlation coefficient between all variables is above 0.6 that indicates the establishment of a positive and strong relationship between all of the variables. The Friedman test was used in order to prioritize the relationships and strategies, and the content validity method was used to determine the reliability of the measurement of the questionnaire’s validity; also, the Cronbach's alpha test was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire in SPSS software.
Results: There is a significant difference between the types of environmental experiences (direct experience of nature, the indirect experience of nature, and the experience of space and place) in order to establish a compatible interaction between adolescents and nature. Also, the experience of direct interaction between adolescents and cognitive competence acquisition has the greatest impact on the promotion of adolescents' mental health; subsequently, the indirect experience of nature with cognitive competence acquisition and experience of space and place with behavioral competence acquisition have the greatest impact on the promotion of adolescents' mental health. According to the obtained information, social competencies are prioritized through biophilic design experiences.
Conclusion: The results indicate that design experiences in the context of learning according to the biophilic approach can meet the psychological needs of the adolescent period, because of the deep multifaceted relationship with nature. Providing solutions following the patterns of this approach in nature-based learning environments can provide the conditions for achieving social adequacy and promoting adolescents’ mental health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophilic
  • Bio-orienting
  • Teens Learning environments
  • Social adequacy

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