فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه روش‌ها و برنامه‌ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ینه و اهداف: حوزه تربیت و یادگیری کار و فناوری از حوزه­های یازده ­گانه­ای است که در برنامه­ درسی ملی لحاظ شده و شامل کسب مهارت­های عملی برای زندگی کار آمد و بهره ور و کسب شایستگی­های مرتبط با فناوری علوم وابسته، به فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات است. یکی از مبانی اصلی اصلاح برنامه درسی در قرن بیستم روند افزایش آموزش فناوری می­باشد. این شایستگی برای تربیت فناورانه و زندگی سالم در فضای مجازی و نیز آمادگی ورود به حرفه و شغل در بخش­های گوناگون اقتصادی و اجتماعی ضروری­اند. با توجه به آموزه­های اسلامی، کار و اشتغال از ارزش تربیتی برخوردار است و انسان از طریق کار، شخصیت وجودی خویش را صیقل می­دهد، هویت خویش را تثبیت می­کند و زمینه ارتقای وجودی خویش را مهیا و امکان کسب روزی حلال برای پاسخگویی به نیازهای جامعه را فراهم می­آورد. مراحل دیگر برای توسعه حداقل مهارت­ها آموزش طراحی و فناوری در مدارس است. آموزش فناوری، کار و مهارت آموزی باعث پیشرفت فردی، افزایش بهره­وری، مشارکت در زندگی اجتماعی و اقتصادی، کاهش فقر، افزایش درآمد و توسعه­یافتگی خواهد شد.
باید در نظر داشت که آسیب­شناسی فرایندی است نظام­مند از جمع­آوری داده­ها به منظور تعامل اثربخش و سودمند در راستای حل مشکلات، چالش­ها، فشارها و محدودیت­های محیطی در اجتماعی می­باشد. در واقع آسیب­شناسی برنامه درسی کار و فناوری می­تواند در ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻮاﻧﻊ، ﻧﻘﺎط ﺿﻌﻒ و ﻗﻮت و ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎ و ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ و اراﻳﻪ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﮋیﻫـﺎی ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻛﻤـﻚ کند. همچنین ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ در آﻣـﻮزش کار و فناوری ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ اولویت ﻫـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛـﻪ در  ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ و  ﺑﻬﺒـﻮد ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎی آﻣﻮزش کار آفرینی، انتخاب شغل و رشته­های کاربردی و متنوع ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬار ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮد. اﮔﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪدرسی کار و فناوری ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ  ﻗـﺮار ﻧﮕﻴـﺮد، ﻋﻠﻢ کارآفرینی که نیاز اساسی کشور در عصر حاضر می­باشد؛ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی آسیب­های موجود در اجرای برنامه درسی کار و فناوری می­باشد.
روش‌ها: این پژوهش کیفی و از نوع پدیدارشناسی بود که با استفاده از ابزار مشاهده مشارکتی و مصاحبه نیمه­ساختاریافته انجام شده است. جامعه پژوهش حاضر تمامی معلمان کار و فناوری مناطق مختلف کشوری بود که 20 نفر از آنان از طریق نمونه­گیری در دسترس تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری انتخاب شد و با آنان مصاحبه نیمه­ساختاریافته صورت گرفت و همچنین کلیه دانش­آموزان دختر و پسر مقطع متوسطه اول شهرستان بهارستان بود که تعداد 80 نفر از آنان از طریق نمونه­گیری در دسترس انتخاب شد و با آنان مصاحبه گروهی در گروه­های 6 الی 8 نفر صورت گرفت. آنگاه متن مصاحبه­ها به روش 7 مرحله­ای تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: یافته­های پژوهش نشان داد که از دیدگاه معلمان آموزش کار وفناوری، در پنج مقوله "محدودیت، عوامل اجتماعی، عدم کفایت ساختاری، استراتژی­های انگیزه­ساز و برنامه­ریزی درسی"  با ده مضمون فرعی و از دیدگاه دانش­آموزان در سه مقوله "عوامل اجتماعی، استراتژی­های انگیزه­ساز و برنامه ریزی درسی " با یازده مضمون فرعی آسیب­پذیر می­باشد.
نتیجه‌گیری:: اجرای برنامه درسی کار و فناوری از دیدگاه معلمان و دانش­آموزان با مشکلات و آسیب­های عدیده­ای روبرو می­باشد لذا توجه به بسترسازی شرایط لازم برای اجرای روش­های کارآمد برنامه درسی کار و فناوری؛ نقش بی­بدیلی را در پرورش نسلی کار آفرین ایفا می­کند. از این­رو لازم است سیاستگذران و دست اندرکاران آموزشی توجه بیشتری را معطوف به اجرای صحیح این برنامه درسی داشته باشند. سیاستگذران و دست اندرکاران آموزشی توجه بیشتری را معطوف به اجرای صحیح این برنامه درسی داشته باشند. در راستای این پژوهش پیشنهادهای کاربردی زیر ارائه می­گردد: دوره­های ضمن خدمت مناسب برای معلمان در خصوص آموزش کامل مهارت­ها و پودمان­ها برگزارگردد. تامین بودجه لازم برای تجهیز کامل مدرسه به امکانات لازم برای انجام فعالیت­ها؛ محتوای برنامه درسی با توجه به نیازهای دانش­آموزان و امکانات مدرسه نیز مورد بازبینی مجدد قرار گیرد تا بستر لازم برای ارتباط با زندگی واقعی دانش­آموزان فراهم شود، ایجاد چارچوب و معیاری مشخص برای ارزشیابی دانش­آموزان.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Pathology of Technology Curriculum in secondary School: Qualitative Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Abolhasani
  • M. Dehghani

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and ObjectiveS: The field of training and learning of work and technology is one of the eleven areas included in the national curriculum and includes the acquisition of practical skills for a productive life and the acquisition of competencies related to technology related sciences. One of the main foundations of curriculum reform in the 20th century is the trend of increasing technology education. These competencies are essential for technological education and healthy life in the cyberspace, as well as readiness to enter professions and jobs in various economic and social sectors. According to Islamic teachings, work and employment have educational values and through work, human polishes their existential personality, establishes their identity and prepares the ground for their existential development and the possibility of earning a lawful livelihood and provides to meet the needs of the community. Another step in developing minimum skills is teaching design and technology in schools. Technology education, work and skills training will lead to personal development, increase productivity, participation in social and economic life, reduce poverty, and increase income and development. It should be noted that pathology is a systematic process of data collection in order to interact effectively and usefully in order to solve problems, challenges, pressures and environmental constraints in society. In fact, the pathology of the work and technology curriculum can help in determining hindrances, weaknesses and strengths, and challenges and opportunities and proposing suitable strategies. Also, warranting the quality in work and technology education is amongst the top priorities to develop the related curriculum, job selection and applied disciplines. If the quality of the curriculum of work and technology is not examined systematically, the entrepreneurship that is the top need of the country is not developed. The purpose of this study is to identify the damages in the implementation of the technology curriculum.
Method and Materials: This research is qualitative and phenomenological. This research was performed using a participatory observation tool and a semi-structured interview. The statistical society of this study was all Technology teachers and all students in secondary school in Baharestan city. Twenty of teachers were selected through available sampling, 80 of students were selected through accessible sampling and group interviews were conducted in groups of 6 to 8 people. Then the text of the interviews was analyzed in a 7-step manner.
Findings: The findings of the research showed that from the perspective of teachers of technology education, five categories of "constraints, social factors, structural inadequacy, motivating strategies and curriculum planning" and ten sub-themes and from the perspective of students’ three categories of "social factors, motivational strategies and curriculum planning" and eleven sub-themes are vulnerable.
Conclusion: There are many problems and damages from the point of view of teachers and students, for implementation of Technology Curriculum; Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the conditions for the implementation of efficient methods of Technology curriculum, as it plays an essential role in generating entrepreneurial generation. Therefore, policy makers and educators need to pay more attention to the proper implementation of this curriculum. Policymakers and educators should pay more attention to the proper implementation of this curriculum. In line with this research, the following practical suggestions are presented: in-service courses should be held for teachers regarding the complete training of skills and modules;  necessary funds should be awarded to fully equip the schools with the necessary facilities to carry out activities; the content of the curriculum should be revised according to the needs of the students and the facilities of the school in order to provide the necessary context for communication with the real life of the students; a clear framework and criteria for student evaluation should be established.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technology
  • Curriculum
  • Pathology
  • secondary school

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