فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: در میان عوامل و عناصر متعدد و فراوانی که در حوزه آموزش‌وپرورش دخیل هستند، یقیناً نقش معلم به‌عنوان محور و مدار علم و دانش و چراغ هدایت از سایرین برجسته‌تر واصلی‌تر است در حقیقت رهبری نسل آینده‌ی هر جامعه‌ای به دست معلمان آن جامعه است، بنابراین معلم باید ازلحاظ شخصیت آن‌چنان باشد که دانش‌آموزان او را به‌عنوان یک رهبر و راهنمای مطلع، مهربان و صدیق بپذیرند و الگوی رفتاری خویش قرار دهند. بدیهی است که معلم زمانی می‌تواند به رسالت آموزشی خود عمل نماید و انتظارات اجتماعی را برآورده سازد که از ویژگی‌های مکفی و لازم برخوردار باشد. یکی از این ویژگی‌ها که با موفقیت یا شکست معلمان در ارتباط است، خودکارآمدی است. ویژگی مهم دیگر نگرشی است که معلمان نسبت به شغل خوددارند. نگرش شغلی نیز یکی از مهم‌ترین عواملی است که نقش برجسته‌ای در اثربخشی سازمان دارد. همچنین این عوامل، علاوه بر رفتارهای فراتر از نقش در کارکنان برافزایش رقابت و عملکرد بهتر در آینده نیز اثر خواهند داشت و نیز ارتباط نیرومندی با موفقیت دانش‌آموزان دارد. با توجه به اهمیت نگرش حرفه‌ای و خودکارآمدی پژوهش حاضر درصدد است تأثیر روش تدریس معکوس را به‌عنوان یکی از عوامل مؤثر بر نگرش حرفه‌ای و خودکارآمدی معلمان مقطع متوسطه شهر تهران را موردبررسی قرار دهد.
روش‌ها: روش پژوهش کمی، غیرآزمایشی از نوع علی-مقایسه ای (پس رویدادی) است. جامعه‌ی آماری شامل معلمان مقطع متوسطه منطقه 4 تهران که از روش معکوس استفاده کرده‌اند، است که به کمک روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس و هدفمند 15 نفراز معلمان مقطع متوسطه که دارای بیشترین فراوانی در جنسیت، سابقه، نوع استخدام و منطقه‌ی محل خدمت بودند، انتخاب شدند. 15 نفر همتای آنان که به روش سنتی تدریس می‌کردند به گروه گواه گمارش یافتند.به‌منظورارزیابی اثربخشی روش تدریس معکوس، دو متغیر وابسته نگرش حرفه‌ای و خودکارآمدی به ترتیب به‌وسیله‌ی پرسشنامه‌ی یزدان پناه (1393) وچانن موران و ولفولک هوی (2001) موردبررسی قرار گرفت. برای تحلیل داده‌ها، از تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری (مانوا) و تحلیل واریانس یک‌راهه (آنوا) استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است میزان نگرش حرفه‌ای و خودکارآمدی کلی و مؤلفه‌های خودکارآمدی معلمانی که از تدریس معکوس استفاده کرده‌اند به‌طور معناداری بیش از معلمانی است که از روش سنتی در کلاس خود بهره برده‌اند.
نتیجه‌گیری: پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که یک روش تدریس نیز می‌تواند بر نگرش حرفه‌ای وخودکارآمدی معلمان تأثیری مثبت بگذارد بنابراین جهت بازدهی بهتر این روش لازم است اولیا نسبت به انجام این روش همراهی کنند و متولیان آموزش و پروش کشور بر آموزش این رویکرد در قالب ضمن خدمت‌ها و نیز فراهم نمودن امکانات لازم اهتمام ورزند. پژوهشگران در جهت ادامه پژوهش حاضر از جامعه مردان ونیز از معلمان دارای سابقه‌ای کمتر از 20 سال استفاده نمایند و نیز به انجام پژوهش در سایر نقاط کشور مبادرت ورزند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of flipped instruction on teachers’ professional attitudes and self-efficacy

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Dinarvand
  • Z. Golzari

Faculty of Psychology and Education, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objective:Among the many factors that are involved in the field of education, the role of the teacher is certainly more prominent than others, and in fact the leadership of the future generation of any society is in the hands of the teachers of that society. Therefore, the teachers’ personality should be projected in a way that students accept them as a knowledgeable, kind, and honest leader and consider them as their role model. Obviously the teachers can fulfill their educational mission and meet the social expectations when they have sufficient and necessary qualities. One of these qualities that is related to the success or failure of teachers, is self-efficacy. Another important feature is the attitudes of teachers towards their jobs that guarantee organizational efficiency. In addition, these factors increase competition and better performance among teachers in the future, and have a strong relationship with students’ success. Considering the importance of professional attitudes and self-efficacy, the present study intends to examine the effectiveness of flipped instruction on professional attitude and self-efficacy of high school teachers in Tehran.
Method and Materials: The present study is a non-empirical quantitative research with a causal-comparative (retrospective) method. The statistical population included all high school teachers at 22 districts of Tehran who adopted inverse teaching method. Using purposive available sampling method, 15 teachers who had the highest score in terms of gender, years of experience, type of employment, and the district of service were selected as the study group. 15 counterparts who were teaching via the conventional methods were selected as the control. To investigate the effectiveness approach, the dependent variables of professional attitude and self-efficacy were examined by related questionnaires. To analyze the data, multiple analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance were used.
Findings: The results indicate that the level of the professional attitude and self-efficacy in general and the components of self-efficacy were significantly higher for teachers using flipped classroom methods than teachers who used conventional methods in their class.
Conclusion: The present study showed that a teaching method can also have a positive effect on teachers' professional attitude and self-efficacy. For better efficiency of this method, parents are required to cooperate with teachers and the country's officials are expected to introduce this approach in in-service courses. It is recommended to researchers to include male samples teachers with less than 20 years of experience in their studies in other parts of the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flipped teaching method
  • Flipped Classroom Approach
  • teachers’professional attitude
  • teachers’self-efficacy
  • high school

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