فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه و اهداف: یکی از چالش‏های اساسی در نظام درسی آموزش عالی این است که دانشجویان از مهارت تفکر، استدلال و اندیشه‏ورزی برخوردار نیستند. به ویژه این مسئله، در موقعیت‏‏هایی خود را نشان می‏دهد که از فراگیران انتظار می‏رود با قدرت خلاقیت و ابداع، به نقد و بازطراحی اندیشه‏ها و افکار قدیمی بپردازند و حتی ایده‏ها و نظریات جدید و نوآورانه را خلق نمایند. عدم توجه دانشگاه‎ها و مؤسسات آموزش عالی پیرامون آموزش و انتقال مهارت‎های اندیشه ورزی، تفکر خلاق و توانایی حل مسئله برای چالش با موقعیت‌های تصمیم‌گیری، دانشجویان را به افرادی تبدیل نموده است که تنها بر حفظیات و نتایج از پیش آماده شده تکیه کنند. یکی از زمینه‎های کاربرد آموزش تفکر مبحث کارآفرینی است که ارتباط تنگاتنگ آن با بحث خلاقیت به وضوح در ادبیات تحقیق مورد تأیید قرار گرفته است. با نهادینه سازی آموزش‌های کارآفرینی از طریق انتقال مهارت اندیشه ورزی به دانشجویان برای خلق ایده‎ها، فرصت مناسبی برای آشناسازی آنها با مفهوم کارآفرینی، تشویق، ایجاد علاقمندی و برانگیختن آنها ایجاد می‏شود. در این راستا، دانشگاه‏های کارآفرین به توسعه مهارت‎های کارآفرینی و کمک به دانشجویان برای شروع کسب و کار جدید و ایجاد شبکه‏سازی با عاملان اقتصادی در راستای حمایت از کارآفرینان دانشگاهی می‏پردازند. اگر دانشگاه‏ها و مؤسسات آموزش عالی به سمت توسعه کارآفرینی گام بر ندارند و به این موضوع توجه نکنند، در طولانی مدت در قالب چارچوب‏های توسعه کلان کشور که مبنای خود را بر اساس شاخص‏ها و معیارهای عینی و لازم الاجرای اقتصادی قرار می‏دهند، توجیهی برای بقا و ادامه کار نخواهند داشت. در این رابطه، روش شش کلاه تفکر، بر قدرت اندیشه‏ورزی دانشجویان جهت طراحی موضوعات شغلی تکیه می‌نماید. در واقع، این روش به دانشجویان کمک می‏کند تا آنها در تفکر پیرامون جنبه‌های مختلف یک موضوع کسب و کار به ویژه در طراحی یک برنامه کسب و کار، کارایی و مهارت‏های لازم را داشته باشند. بنابراین، مطالعه تدریس پژوهی حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر آموزش شش کلاه تفکر دوبونو در بهبود توانایی‌های شناختی دانشجویان کشاورزی در درس کارآفرینی انجام گرفت.
روش‌ها‌: در این پژوهش، 80 دانشجوی کارشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه (سال تحصیلی 96-95) طبق طرح شبه آزمایشی چهار مرحله‎‌ای سولومون به شکل تصادفی در گروه‎های تیمار و کنترل تقسیم شدند. برای سنجش توانایی‌ شناختی آزمودنی‌ها از یک پرسشنامه کسب و کار احداث واحد پرورش ماهی استفاده شد که روایی صوری آن توسط گروهی از اعضای هیأت علمی تأیید و سازگاری آن با ضریب پایایی کودرریچاردسون 21 تأیید شد (rKR21= 72/0). از نرم‌افزار SPSS نیز برای تحلیل داده‎ها و محاسبه اندازه اثر نتایج استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان می‌دهد که روش شش کلاه تفکر دوبونو اختلاف معناداری را در دانش شناختی آزمودنی‌ها در چهار گروه آزمایشی پیرامون تدوین طرح کسب و کار ایجاد می‎نماید (0.001 < p، 79= df، 40.89= F). همچنین، بین نمرات پیش آزمون و پس آزمون آزمودنی‌های گروه یک اختلاف معناداری وجود دارد (0.001 < p، 22= df، 8.16 = SΔ) که اندازه اثر 75/0 (0.75= ) نیز تأثیر قابل توجه آموزش روش شش کلاه تفکر را نشان داد. همچنین، نتایج کیفی تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که آزمودنی‌ها توانستند یک طرح کسب و کار استاندارد را طراحی نمایند.
نتیجه‌گیری: بکارگیری روش شش کلاه تفکر در مراکز کارآفرینی دانشگاه‎ها و مؤسسات آموزش عالی توصیه می‎شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of training Six Thinking Hats method on improving cognitive skills of agricultural students in entrepreneurship course

نویسنده [English]

  • B. Abadi

Department of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives:One of the main challenges in Iranian higher education system is the fact that students are not entitled to the skills of thinking and reasoning. In particular, this issue manifests itself in situations where learners are expected to critique and redesign old ideas and thoughts with the power of creativity and innovation, and even creating new and innovative ideas and theories. The lack of attention paid by universities and higher education institutions to training and transferring of thinking skills, creative thinking, and problem-solving ability to challenge decision-making situations has made students rely solely on memorization and pre-prepared results. One of the fields of application of thinking is the issue of entrepreneurship, the close connection of which with creativity has clearly been confirmed in the literature. By institutionalizing entrepreneurship education through the transfer of thinking skills to students to create ideas, they are acquainted with the concept of entrepreneurship, by which they are inspired to create innovative ideas and thoughts. In this regard, entrepreneurial universities develop entrepreneurial skills and help students to start new businesses and network with economic agents in order to support university entrepreneurs. If universities and higher education institutions are not able to step towards entrepreneurial development and do not give thought to this issue, there would be no justification for their survival and continued work in long run, as macro-development frameworks will be implemented based on objective economic indicators and criteria. Hence, the six-hat method of thinking relies on students' thinking power to design career topics. This approach, in essence, will help students have the necessary efficiency and skills in thinking about different aspects of a business issue, especially in designing a business plan. For this reason, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of six thinking hats (STHs) of De Bono on improving the cognitive abilities and skills of agricultural students in the entrepreneurship course.
Methods: In this study, 80 undergraduate agricultural students in the University of Maragheh (the academic year 2016-2017) were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups according to a quasi-experimental design of Solomon's four stages. To assess the cognitive ability of the cases, a business questionnaire for the construction of a fish farming unit was used. SPSS software was used to analyze the data and calculate the effect size of the results.
Findings: The results unveil that the approach of STHs makes a significant difference in the knowledge of the cases in four experimental groups on the development of business plan (F = 40.89, df = 79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of the participants in different groups (SΔ = 8.16, df = 22, p < 0.0010) with the effect size of 0.75 ( = 0.75), indicating a significant effect for the STHs on learning. Additionally, the qualitative results of the research manifest that the participants were able to design a standard business plan.
Conclusion: It is recommended to use the STHs method in entrepreneurship centers of universities and higher education institutions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Hats
  • " "Thinking
  • " "Training
  • " "Cognitive
  • "

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