شناسایی کیفیات فضایی مؤثر بر پرورش هوش‌های چندگانه‌ در فضاهای مدرسه (نمونه موردی: مدارس ابتدایی شهر مشهد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ویژگی‌های فردی دانش‌آموزان و شیوه‌های یادگیری آن‌ها، به میزان زیادی وابسته به هوش آن‌هاست. با توجه به نظریه‌ی هوش‌های چندگانه‌، هوش در افراد، دارای وجوه و انواع متفاوتی است. تقویت هر یک از این هوش‌ها از طریق کسب مهارت در انجام فعالیت‌هایی امکان‌پذیر است. پژوهش حاضر، به دنبال دستیابی به کیفیات فضایی است که موجب افزایش تمایل دانش‌آموزان به انجام فعالیت‌های یادشده در هر فضا می‌گردد. شناخت این کیفیات و به کار بستن آن‌ها در طراحی فضاهای مدرسه می‌تواند موجب افزایش امکان وقوع فعالیت‌های مرتبط با هر هوش شود و احتمال پرورش این هوش‌ها را در دانش‌آموزان افزایش دهد. بنابراین، در این پژوهش، مطالعاتی میدانی باهدف شناسایی شاخصه‌های کالبدی لازم برای تناسب بیشتر فضا با فعالیت‌های تقویت‌کننده هر هوش انجام‌شده است. جامعه‌ی آماری این مطالعات، دانش‌آموزان مقطع ابتدایی در مشهد می‌باشد. 172 نفر از این دانش­آموزان به‌عنوان جامعه‌ی نمونه، با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیریِ تصادفیِ طبقه‌بندی‌شده، انتخاب‌شده‌اند و از آن‌ها خواسته‌شده تا برای انجام فعالیت‌های مذکور از میان 6 تصویر ارائه‌شده‌ تصاویر مطلوب را مشخص نمایند و به توصیف دلایل آن بپردازند. کیفیت‌های مورداشاره، شناسایی، کدگذاری و بر اساس اهمیت و دفعاتِ تکرار در نرم­افزار SPSS طبقه‌بندی‌شده است. این کیفیت­ها که با استفاده از راهبرد تحقیق کیفی و فن مصاحبه‌ی عمیق استخراج‌شده، پس از ارزیابی و تحلیل، به رهنمودهایی در طراحی مدارس ابتدایی تبدیل‌شده است. هدف از این رهنمودها افزایش مطلوبیت فضاهای مدرسه در انجام فعالیت­های تقویت‌کننده هر یک از هوش­های چندگانه و ارتقاء این هوش­ها در دانش­آموزان است. 

چکیده تصویری

شناسایی کیفیات فضایی مؤثر بر پرورش هوش‌های چندگانه‌ در فضاهای مدرسه (نمونه موردی: مدارس ابتدایی شهر مشهد)

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying effective spatial qualities for the development of multiple intelligences in school spaces (Case study: Primary schools in Mashhad city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Kowsari 1
  • Abbas Tarkashvand 2
1 Architecture Department, School of Architecture and Art, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University pf Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Student's individual characteristics and learning styles highly depend on their intelligence. According to Gardner's multiple intelligence theory, intelligence in individuals has different aspects and types. Each of these intelligences can be strengthened by acquiring skills in doing some activities. The present study seeks to find spatial qualities that increase students' inclination to do these activities in each space. Understanding these qualities and applying them in school spaces can increase the likelihood of occurrence of intelligence-related activities and consequently increase the likelihood of developing these intelligences in students. Therefore, in this research, field studies have been conducted to identify the physical characteristics and qualities of spaces which lead to more correspondence between spaces and intelligence-nurturing activities. The statistical population of this study was elementary school students in Mashhad. 172 students were selected as a sample population, using a clustered random sampling method. They were asked to identify and describe the qualities of their desired space pictures for doing the above-mentioned activities among 6 provided images. The qualities were coded and classified according to the importance and frequency of repetition in SPSS software. Qualities derived using the qualitative research strategy and the in-depth interview technique, after evaluations and analyses, have turned to guidelines for designing elementary schools. The purpose of these guidelines is to increase the desirability of school spaces for occurring activities that develop each intelligence in students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Educational spaces
  • elementary school
  • Learning
  • multiple intelligences
  • activity

[1] Neisser, U. (1996). Intelligence: knowns and unknowns. Atlanta: American psychological assn.

[2] Pritchard, A. (2009). Ways of learning; Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.

[3] Niroo, M., & Hajihosseini, Gh., & Haghani, M. (2011). The effect of gardner''s multiple intelligence theory on first-grade high school student''s mathematical developments. Quarterly journal Of educational leadership & administration, 16, 153-168. [in persian]

[4] Teymouri, M. H. (2003). Multiple intelligence theory and curriculum. Quarterly journal of education, 76, 33-64. [in persian]

[5] Williams, B., & Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2008). Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 90(2), 219–231.

[6] Seyf, A. (2017). Modern educational psychology, psychology of learning and instruction (7th ed.). Tehran: Dowran publication.

[7] Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (2008). The psychology of the child. Translation: Zinat Towfigh. Tehran: Ney publication. [in persian]

[8] Ginsburg, H., & Ooper, S. (1999). Piaget’s theory of intellectual development. Translation: Fereydun Haghigh. Tehran: Fatemi publication. [in persian]

[9] Hajihosseinnejad, Gh., & Baleghizadeh, S. (2008). Math training for normal and Slow learning students. Tehran: Jahad daneshgahi publication. [in Persian]

[10] Armstrong, T. (2000). In their own way: Discovering and encouraging your child''s multiple intelligences. New York: Tarcher perigee publication.

[11] Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligence in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexanderia: ASCD.

[12] Gharebeigloo, M., & Eynifar, A., & Izadi, A. (2013). Promoting child interaction with outdoor space in residential complexes in tabriz. Journal of fine arts, architecture and urbanism, 18(2), 69-82. [in Persian]

[13] Hoseini Dehshiri, A. (1999). The nature of creativity and its practices. Mashhad: Nashr publication. [in Persian]

[14] Watkins, K. P., & Lucius D. J. (1992). Complete early childhood cehavior management guide. NY: The center for applied research in education.

[15] Isbell, R., & Exelby, B., & Exelby, G., & Isbell, C. (2001). Early learning environments ehat Work. MD: Gryphon house.

[16] Bailey, K. A. (2002). The role of the physical environment for children in residential care. Residential treatment for children & youth. 20(1), 15-27.

[17] Read, M. A., & Sugawara, A. I. & Brandt, J. A. (1991). Impact of space and color in the physical environment on preschool children’s cooperative behavior. Environment and behavior, 31(3), 413-428.

[18] Kemple, K. M. (2004). Let’s be friends: Peer competence and social inclusion in early childhood program. New York: Teachers college press, Columbia University.

[19] Johnson, L. J., & Lamontagne, M. J., & Elgas, P. M., & Bauer, A. M. (1998). Early childhood education: blending theory, blending practice. MD: Paul H. Brookes pub Co.

[20] Nair, P. & Feilding, R. (2007). The language of school design, design patterns for 21st century cchools. Minneapolis: DesignShare.

[21] Koenig, R. (2009). k-8 Library design renovation: Accommodateing multiple intelligeces and learning style (Unpublished master’s thesis). Florida State University, Florida.

[22] Driskell, D. (2002). Creating better cities with children and youth: A manual fot participation. Paris/London: Earthscan/UNESCO publishing.

[23] Alsaif, F. (2011). Intelligence-friendly environment; A study of new zealand primary school classroom; design in relation to multiple intelligence theory (Unpublished master’s thesis). Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.

[24] Hoerr, Thomas R. (2010). "Our MI library" http://www.newcityschool.org/OurMILibrary_980.aspx (accessed May 30, 2013).

[25] Kowsari, S. (2013). Designing an elementary school for multiple intelligence improvment purpose (Unpublished master’s thesis). Guilan University, Rasht. [in persian]

[26] Grote, L. N., & Wang, D. C. (2002). Architectural research methods. Translation: Alireza Eynifar. Tehran: Tehran University publication. [in persian]

[27] Mehrmohammadi, M. (2006). Multiple intelligence theory and its implication for curriculum and education. Quarterly journal of education, 88, 7-31. [in persian]

[28] Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. (3rd ed.). New York: Basic books.

[29] Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic books.

[30] Feyzabadi, N., & Akhavan Tafti, M. (2008). Studying the correlation between high school students'' guidance and gardner''s multiple intelligences. Journal of research On issues of education, 15, 31-49. [in persian]