فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مدیریت و برنامه ریزی آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیشینه اهداف: یادگیری الکترونیکی ضرورت جامعه اطلاعاتی و یکی از شرایط اصلی برای تحقق هدف برنامه چهارم توسعه کشور (توسعه مبتنی بر دانایی) است.  در برنامه ی مذکور به دانشگاه ها اجازه داده شده است که به  منظور پاسخگویی مناسب به افزایش تقاضا برای ورود به نظام آموزش عالی از یک سو و دسترسی به فرصت های برابر آموزشی و ارتقای پوشش جمعیت دانشجویی از سوی دیگر، توجه ویژه‌ای به رویکرد یادگیری الکترونیکی در فرایند یاددهی-یادگیری مؤسسه های آموزش عالی و دانشگاه ها نمایند.  همگام با توسعه یادگیری الکترونیکی در سطح دانشگاه‌ها و مؤسسات آموزش عالی، موضوع ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی و توجیه اجرای برنامه‌ها و لزوم تأمین الزامات و استانداردهای مورد نظر برای طراحی، توسعه و پیاده‌سازی یادگیری الکترونیکی در آموزش عالی دارای اهمیت است. با توجه به اینکه ساختار یادگیری الکترونیکی پیچیده بوده و از مؤلفه های گوناگونی تشکیل شده، لازم است برای ارزیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی تمام این مؤلفه ها بررسی شوند، بنابراین ضروری است با انجام مطالعه ای جامع، شاخص های اصلی و عملی ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی شناسایی و معرفی گردند تا با استفاده از آنها به طراحی و تدوین چارچوب و ابزارهایی مناسب برای ارزشیابی این نظام پرداخته شود. ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی به دست اندرکاران و مدیران مربوطه در مراکز آموزش عالی این فرصت را می دهد تا نقاط قوت و ضعف این نظام را شناخته و برای تقویت نقاط قوت و یا رفع کاستی ها و نقص های احتمالی اقدام نمایند.
روش‌ها‌: این پژوهش جستاری در تجربه زیسته اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه تهران در سال 1398 از ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی بوده است. در این مطالعه تلاش شد تا با بهره‌گیری از روش‌شناسی کیفی مؤلفه‌های ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی در دانشگاه تهران شناسایی شوند. داده های این پژوهش از طریق رویکرد کیفی و با روشی پدیدارشناسانه توصیفی و با ابزار مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته استخراج شده است و داده ها از طریق روش کدگذاری و مقوله بندی تجزیه و تحلیل شده اند.نمونه گیری در این پژوهش از طریق هدفمند و از نوع معیاری بوده و در مجموع 17نفر از متخصصان در زمینه یادگیری الکترونیکی دانشگاه تهران شرکت نموده اند. روایی داده‌های کیفی با استفاده از چهار معیار قضاوت لینکن و گوبا (1985) شامل؛ باورپذیری، قابلیت انتقال/انتقال‌پذیری، قابلیت تأیید یا بی‌طرفی و قابلیت اطمینان یا سازگاری و پایایی داده‌های کیفی توسط کدگذاری مجدد توسط کدگذار دوم و خودِ کدگذار تأیید شده است.
یافته‌ها: بر اساس یافته های پژوهش عوامل مرتبط با ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی در سه بعد پداگوژی، سازمانی و فناوری دسته بندی شده که در مجموع دارای 17 مؤلفه و 95 مفهوم بوده است. این مؤلفه‌ها در قالب استاد، دانشجو، دستیار آموزشی، فرایند یاددهی- یادگیری، محتوا، ارزشیابی، خدمات پشتیبانی، تعامل، نظام آموزش و توانمندسازی، نظام انگیزش، اهداف و استراتژی‌های دانشگاه، نظام مدیریت دانش، فرهنگ، منابع کالبدی، نرم‌افزار، سخت‌افزار و زیرساخت شناسایی شده‌اند.
نتیجه‌گیری: به طور کلی نتایج این پژوهش بیانگر نکات مهمی است که می تواند اطلاعات ارزشمندی را برای مدیران و مسوولان دانشگاه تهران در حوزه یادگیری الکترونیکی فراهم آورد تا با اتخاذ سیاست های اصولی در خصوص ارزشیابی این نظام در جهت بهبود و ارتقاء کیفیت و اثربخشی یادگیری الکترونیکی گام های اساسی بردارند. توصیه می‌شود دانشگاه به منظور ارزشیابی نظام یادگیری الکترونیکی دانشگاه تهران، از الگوی ارائه شده در پژوهش حاضر استفاده نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the components of e-learning system at university of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. NARENJITHANI
  • J. pourkarimi
  • S. Hejazi

Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: E-learning is the necessity of the information society and the main condition for achieving the goal of the Fourth National Development Plan (Knowledge-Based Development) which has paid special attention to the university activities while benefitting from the electronic learning in higher education in order to provide equal educal opportunities and increasing the coverage of the student population. Along with the development of e-learning at the level of universities and institutions of higher education, the issue of evaluating the e-learning system and justifying the implementation of programs and the need to meet the proper requirements and standards for designing, developing and implementing e-learning in higher education is important. Given that the structure of e- learning is complex and consists of various components, it is necessary to examine all these components to evaluate the e-learning system. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study to identify and introduce the main and practical indicators of evaluating the e-learning system so that they can be used for designing and developing appropriate frameworks and tools for evaluation of this system. Evaluation of the e-learning system provides the relevant staff and managers in higher education with the opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of this system and strengthen the strengths or eliminate possible deficiencies and shortcomings.
Materials and Methods: This research was an inquiry into the lived experiences of the faculty members of the University of Tehran in 1398 of evaluating the e-learning system. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the components of e-learning system evaluation in the University of Tehran by using qualitative methodology.The data of this research have been extracted through a qualitative approach with a descriptive phenomenological method and with semi-structured interview tools and the data have been analyzed through coding and categorization methods. Sampling in this study has been purposeful and standard and a total of 17 experts in the field of e-learning from Tehran University have participated in thestudy. The validity of qualitative data using four judgment criteria of Lincoln and Goba)1985(including validity or reliability, transferability verifiability or neutrality, and reliability or compatibility and reliability of qualitative data through recoding by the second encoder and the encoder himself has been confirmed.
Findings: Based on the research findings, the factors related to the evaluation of e-learning system are classified into three dimensions of pedagogy, organization and technology which, on the whole has 17 components and 95 concepts. These components have been identified in the form of teacher, student, teaching assistant, teaching-learning process, content, evaluation, support services, interaction, education and empowerment system, motivation system, university goals and strategies, knowledge management system, culture, physical resources, software, hardware and infrastructure.
Conclusion: In general, the results of this study indicate important points that can provide valuable information for administrators and authorities the University of Tehran in the field of e-learning system to adopt principled policies regarding the evaluation of this system to improve and enhance the quality and effectiveness of e-learning. It is recommended that the university uses the model presented in the present study in order to evaluate the e-learning system of the University of Tehran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • e-learnind
  • e-learning system
  • university of tehran

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