فصلنامه علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه ریاضی، دانشکده فنی انقلاب اسلامی، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه‌ای، تهران، ایران

2 گروه ریاضی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه دولتی آموزگاری تاجیکستان، دوشنبه، تاجیکستان

چکیده

پیشینه اهداف: ازآنجایی‌که روش آموزش مبتنی بر حل مسأله  روشی کارا، پذیرفته‌شده و دانش‌آموز محور می‌باشد و در این روش یادگیرنده در کل فرآیند آموزش و یادگیری فعال است، روشی مناسب برای آموزش مفاهیم ریاضی است. بااین‌حال پژوهشگران خاطرنشان کرده‌اند که اجرای این روش به شیوه سنتی با محدودیت‌های جدی نظیر کمبود منابع مالی، کمبود زمان و کمبود تعداد آموزشگران ماهر روبرو است. درنتیجه پیاده‌سازی این روش به‌صورت الکترونیکی به‌منظور بهره‌گیری از امکانات موجود در فضای مجازی ازجمله ابزار نوشتاری،دسترسی به منابع،بحث و تبادل نظر بین دانش‌آموزان و به اشتراک‌گذاری نظرات و ایده‌ها، یک ضرورت انکارناپذیر است. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، طراحی نرم‌افزار جدید بر پایه یادگیری مبتنی بر حل مسأله (بنام نرم‌افزار تسهیل‌گر) و همچنین بررسی تأثیر این نرم‌افزار بر بهبود عملکرد ریاضی دانش‌آموزان پایه سوم متوسطه دوم می‌باشد. نرم‌افزار تسهیل‌گر با مشاوره گروهی از متخصصین زمینه فناوری آموزشی و ریاضی برای یادگیری برخی از مباحث ریاضی دوره متوسطه طراحی و تولید شده است. نرم‌افزار طراحی‌شده ضمن فراهم نمودن بستری مناسب برای آموزش ریاضی در محیط‌های دیجیتال باعث افزایش فعالیت دانش‌آموزان در درس ریاضی، صرفه‌جویی در زمان و هزینه‌های آموزش، فراهم آوردن امکان برگزاری آزمون‌های مستمر تشریحی برای دانش‌آموزان و خودارزیابی آنلاین در محیط‌های الکترونیکی می‌شود.
روش‌ها‌: پژوهش به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی و با تکیه بر روش پیش‌آزمون پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل انجام شد. به این منظور دو پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون ریاضی محقق ساخته در قالب هشت سؤال 20 نمره‌ای از کتاب پایه سوم متوسطه طراحی شد. گرد‌آوری داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی معلم ساخته با ملاحظات تأمین روایی و پایایی، انجام شد. روایی محتوایی آزمون‌ها با روش لاووشه بررسی و مورد تائید قرار گرفت. همچنین از روش دونیمه کردن برای بررسی پایایی آزمون‌های ریاضی استفاده شد. بدین منظور از نرم‌افزار آماری به جهت بررسی و سنجش پایایی از ضریب دونیمه کردن استفاده گردید و درنهایت برای آزمون‌های ریاضی پایایی به مقدار ۷۸/۰ به دست آمد. شرکت‌کنندگان در این تحقیق 65 دانش‌آموز دختر و پسر پایه سوم متوسطه دوم از دو مدرسه در شهر تهران بودند که با توجه به نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده و با تکیه بر فرمول کوکران، 32 دانش‌آموز به‌عنوان گروه آزمایش و 31 نفر به‌عنوان گروه کنترل از یک مدرسه  و همچنین 33 دانش‌آموز به‌عنوان گروه آزمایش و 30 دانش‌آموز به‌عنوان گروه کنترل از مدرسه دیگر انتخاب شدند. در گروه‌های آزمایش، آموزش ریاضی به کمک نرم‌افزار تسهیل‌گر و در گروه‌های کنترل آموزش به روش سنتی انجام شد. داده‌ها از طریق آزمون ریاضی جمع‌آوری و تحلیل آن‌ها با استفاده از آزمون آنالیز واریانس و آزمون تعقیبی صورت گرفت.
یافته‌ها: یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که بین میانگین نمرات پس‌آزمون دانش‌آموزان، در گروه‌های کنترل و گروه‌های آزمایش تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. میانگین نمرات پس‌آزمون گروه‌های آزمایش بیشتر از گروه‌های کنترل است.
نتیجه‌گیری: درمجموع، یافته‌ها نشان داد که ایده طراحی نرم‌افزار تسهیل‌گر با تأکید بر آموزش مبتنی  بر حل مسأله موفقیت‌آمیز بوده و استفاده از این نرم‌افزار در عملکرد ریاضی دانش‌آموزان پایه سوم متوسطه تأثیر مثبت و معناداری داشته است. درنتیجه می‌توان از نرم‌افزار تسهیل‌گر به‌عنوان یک مداخله مفید و کارآمد برای بهبود یادگیری درس ریاضی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

E-learning of mathematics using problem-based learning by designing a new software and studying its impact on the mathematical performance of secondary high school students

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Jafarabadi Ashtiyani 1
  • M. Nugmonov 2

1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Enghelab-e Eslami Technical College, Technical and Vocational University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Tajik State Pedagogical University, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectivess: Since the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an efficient, well-accepted, learner-centered method in which the learner is active in the whole process of teaching and learning, it is a suitable method for teaching mathematical concepts. Nevertheless, the researchers have pointed out that implementation of the PBL method in the traditional way faces serious limitations, such as shortage of financial resources, lack of time and skilled educators. Therefore, implementing this method to benefit from the existing facilities in the electronic space including writing tools, access to shared resources, discussion and exchange of ideas among students, and sharing opinions and ideas is an undeniable necessity. The main purpose of the present study is designing a new software based on problem-based learning (named as facilitator software) and investigating the effect of this software on the mathematical performance of third-grade high school students. The facilitator software was designed and implemented by consultation with a team of educational and mathematical technology experts to learn some of the mathematics topics of third-grade high school. This software provides an appropriate method for teaching mathematical concepts in electronic environments (e-environments) which results in increasing the students' activity in mathematics, saving time and educational expenses and providing an opportunity to take ongoing written examinations for students and online self-assessment in e-environments.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by a random sampling method based on the pretest-posttest with a control group. As a result, two researcher-made mathematics pre-test and post-test were devised in the form of eight questions, each of which had 20 marks, from mathematics textbook of the third grade high school. Data collection was done using a teacher-made achievement test, with validity and reliability considerations. The content validity of the researcher-made mathematics tests was examined and verified by the Lawshe method. In addition, to evaluate the reliability of the mathematics tests, the split-half method was used. For this purpose, statistical software was used to examine and measure the reliability, based on the split-half reliability coefficient and, finally, for the mathematics tests, reliability was found to be 0.78. Participants in this study were comprised of 65 male and female students in the third-grade of two public high schools in Tehran. Based on the simple random sampling, the Cochran formula, 32 students were selected as the experimental group and 31 students were chosen as the control group from one high school and in the same way, 33 students were selected as the experimental group and 30 students were chosen as the control groupfrom another high school. The traditional method was used in the experimental groups and in the control groups the facilitator software was used to teach mathematical concepts. The data were then collected through mathematical tests and analyzed by exerting analysis of variance and post hoc tests.
Findings: The results showed that there is a significant difference between the average scores of the control groups and those of the experimental groups in their post-test results. The average scores of the post-test for the experimental groups were higher than those of the post-test for the two control groups.
Conclusion: On the whole, the findings showed that the idea of designing and using the facilitator software with emphasis on BPL in teaching mathematics has been successful and this software had a positive effect on the mathematical performance of the third grade high school students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • e-Learning
  • Facilitator software
  • Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
  • Mathematical performance

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